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List of Presidents of the United States

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The White House, the president's official residence and center of the administration

Under the United States Constitution, the President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. As chief of the executive branch and head of the federal government as a whole, the presidency is the highest political office in the United States by influence and recognition. The president is also the Commander-in-Chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected to a four-year term by an Electoral College (or by the House of Representatives should the Electoral College fail to award an absolute majority of votes to any person). Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected to the office of the president more than twice. Furthermore, no person who served more than two years of a term - to which someone else was elected - may be elected more than once.[1] Upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of an incumbent president, the Vice President assumes the office.

About the list[edit]

This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as president following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect on March 4, 1789. For American leaders before this ratification, see President of the Continental Congress.[2] The list does not include any Acting Presidents under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

There have been forty-three people sworn into office, and forty-four presidencies, as Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is counted chronologically as both the twenty-second and twenty-fourth president. Of the individuals elected as president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison[3], Zachary Taylor.[4], Warren G. Harding[5][6], and Franklin D. Roosevelt), one resigned (Richard Nixon[7]), and four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln[8][9], James A. Garfield[10][9], William McKinley[11][12][13], and John F. Kennedy). The first president was George Washington, who was inaugurated in 1789 after a unanimous Electoral College vote. William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office at 31 days in 1841. At over twelve years, Franklin D. Roosevelt spent the longest time in office, and is the only president to serve more than two terms; he died shortly into his fourth term in 1945. The current president is Barack Obama; he assumed the office on January 20, 2009, and is the first president of African-American descent.[14][15][16][17][18] He is also the first president born outside the contiguous United States, having been born in Hawaii.[19][20]

List of presidents[edit]

Parties

      No party       Federalist       Democratic-Republican       Democratic       Whig       Republican

No.
[n 1]
President Took office Left office Party Term
[n 1]
Vice President
1 Gilbert Stuart Williamstown Portrait of George Washington.jpg George Washington
(1732–1799)
[21][22][23]
April 30, 1789 March 4, 1797 no party 1 (1789)   John Adams
2 (1792)
2 Adamstrumbull.jpg John Adams
(1735–1826)
[24][25][26]
March 4, 1797 March 4, 1801 Federalist 3 (1796) Thomas Jefferson
3 Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg Thomas Jefferson
(1743–1826)
[27][28][29]
March 4, 1801 March 4, 1809 Democratic-
Republican
4 (1800) Aaron Burr
5 (1804) George Clinton
4 James Madison.jpg James Madison
(1751–1836)
[30][31][32]
March 4, 1809 March 4, 1817 Democratic-
Republican
6 (1808) George Clinton[n 2]
March 4, 1809 – April 20, 1812
vacant[n 3]
April 20, 1812 – March 4, 1813
7 (1812) Elbridge Gerry[n 2]
March 4, 1813 – November 23, 1814
vacant[n 3]
November 23, 1814 – March 4, 1817
5 Jm5.gif James Monroe
(1758–1831)
[33][34][35]
March 4, 1817 March 4, 1825 Democratic-
Republican
8 (1816) Daniel D. Tompkins
9 (1820)
6 John Quincy Adams by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg John Quincy Adams
(1767–1848)
[36][37][38]
March 4, 1825 March 4, 1829 Democratic-
Republican
;
National
Republican
10 (1824) John C. Calhoun
7 Andrew jackson head.jpg Andrew Jackson
(1767–1845)
[39][40][41]
March 4, 1829 March 4, 1837 Democratic 11 (1828) John C. Calhoun[n 4]
March 4, 1829 – December 28, 1832
vacant[n 3]
December 28, 1832 – March 4, 1833
12 (1832) Martin Van Buren
8 Mb8.gif Martin Van Buren
(1782–1862)
[42][43][44]
March 4, 1837 March 4, 1841 Democratic 13 (1836) Richard Mentor Johnson
9 William Henry Harrison by James Reid Lambdin, 1835.jpg William Henry Harrison
(1773–1841)
[45][46][47]
March 4, 1841 April 4, 1841
[n 2]
Whig 14 (1840) John Tyler
10
[n 5]
WHOportTyler.jpg John Tyler
(1790–1862)
[48][49][50]
April 4, 1841 March 4, 1845 Whig
April 4, 1841 – September 13, 1841
vacant[n 3]
no party[n 6]
September 13, 1841 – March 4, 1845
11 James Knox Polk by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg James K. Polk
(1795–1849)
[51][52][53]
March 4, 1845 March 4, 1849 Democratic 15 (1844) George M. Dallas
12 Zachary Taylor 2.jpg Zachary Taylor
(1784–1850)
[54][55][56]
March 4, 1849 July 9, 1850
[n 2]
Whig 16 (1848) Millard Fillmore
13 Millard Fillmore by George PA Healy, 1857.jpg Millard Fillmore
(1800–1874)
[57][58][59]
July 9, 1850 March 4, 1853 Whig vacant[n 3]
14 Franklin Pierce by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg Franklin Pierce
(1804–1869)
[60][61][62]
March 4, 1853 March 4, 1857 Democratic 17 (1852) William R. King[n 2]
March 4, 1853 – April 18, 1853
vacant[n 3]
April 18, 1853 – March 4, 1857
15 100px James Buchanan
(1791–1868)
[63][64][65]
March 4, 1857 March 4, 1861 Democratic 18 (1856) John C. Breckinridge
16 AbrahamLincolnOilPainting1869Restored.jpg Abraham Lincoln
(1809–1865)
[66][67][68]
March 4, 1861 April 15, 1865
[n 7]
Republican 19 (1860) Hannibal Hamlin
Republican
National Union[n 8]
20 (1864) Andrew Johnson
17 Aj17.gif Andrew Johnson
(1808–1875)
[69][70][71]
April 15, 1865 March 4, 1869 Democratic
National Union[n 8];
no party[n 9]
vacant
[n 3]
18 Ug18.gif Ulysses S. Grant
(1822–1885)
[72][73][74]
March 4, 1869 March 4, 1877 Republican 21 (1868) Schuyler Colfax
22 (1872) Henry Wilson[n 2]
March 4, 1873 – November 22, 1875
vacant[n 3]
November 22, 1875 – March 4, 1877
19 Rhayes.png Rutherford B. Hayes
(1822–1893)
[75][76][77]
March 4, 1877 March 4, 1881 Republican 23 (1876) William A. Wheeler
20 James Garfield portrait.jpg James A. Garfield
(1831–1881)
[78][79][80]
March 4, 1881 September 19, 1881
[n 7]
Republican 24 (1880) Chester A. Arthur
21 Ca21.gif Chester A. Arthur
(1829–1886)
[81][82][83]
September 19, 1881 March 4, 1885 Republican vacant[n 3]
22 Grover Cleveland portrait2.jpg Grover Cleveland
(1837–1908)
[84][85]
March 4, 1885 March 4, 1889 Democratic 25 (1884) Thomas A. Hendricks[n 2]
March 4, 1885 – November 25, 1885
vacant[n 3]
November 25, 1885 – March 4, 1889
23 Benjamin Harrison by Eastman Johnson (1895).jpg Benjamin Harrison
(1833–1901)
[86][87][88]
March 4, 1889 March 4, 1893 Republican 26 (1888) Levi P. Morton
24 Grover Cleveland, painting by Anders Zorn.jpg Grover Cleveland
(1837–1908)
[84][85]
March 4, 1893 March 4, 1897 Democratic 27 (1892) Adlai E. Stevenson I
25 Wm25.gif William McKinley
(1843–1901)
[89][90][91]
March 4, 1897 September 14, 1901
[n 7]
Republican 28 (1896) Garret Hobart[n 2]
March 4, 1897 – November 21, 1899
vacant[n 3]
November 21, 1899 – March 4, 1901
29 (1900) Theodore Roosevelt
26 TRSargent.jpg Theodore Roosevelt
(1858–1919)
[92][93][94]
September 14, 1901 March 4, 1909 Republican vacant[n 3]
30 (1904) Charles W. Fairbanks
27 TaftOfficial Portrait.jpg William Howard Taft
(1857–1930)
[95][96][97]
March 4, 1909 March 4, 1913 Republican 31 (1908) James S. Sherman[n 2]
March 4, 1909 – October 30, 1912
vacant[n 3]
October 30, 1912 – March 4, 1913
28 Ww28.gif Woodrow Wilson
(1856–1924)
[98][99][100]
March 4, 1913 March 4, 1921 Democratic 32 (1912) Thomas R. Marshall
33 (1916)
29 Wh29.gif Warren G. Harding
(1865–1923)
[101][102][103]
March 4, 1921 August 2, 1923
[n 2]
Republican 34 (1920) Calvin Coolidge
30 Calvin Coolidge.jpg Calvin Coolidge
(1872–1933)
[104][105][106]
August 2, 1923 March 4, 1929 Republican vacant[n 3]
35 (1924) Charles G. Dawes
31 Herbert Clark Hoover by Greene, 1956.jpg Herbert Hoover
(1874–1964)
[107][108][109]
March 4, 1929 March 4, 1933 Republican 36 (1928) Charles Curtis
32 Franklin Roosevelt - Presidential portrait.jpg Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1882–1945)
[110][111][112]
March 4, 1933 (1933-03-04) Template:End date
[n 2]
Democratic 37 (1932)
[n 10]
John Nance Garner
38 (1936)
39 (1940) Henry A. Wallace
40 (1944) Harry S. Truman
33 HarryTruman.jpg Harry S. Truman
(1884–1972)
[113][114][115]
April 12, 1945 January 20, 1953 Democratic vacant[n 3]
41 (1948) Alben W. Barkley
34 Dwight D. Eisenhower, official Presidential portrait.jpg Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1890–1969)
[116][117][118]
January 20, 1953 January 20, 1961
[n 11]
Republican 42 (1952) Richard Nixon
43 (1956)
35 John F Kennedy Official Portrait.jpg John F. Kennedy
(1917–1963)
[119][120][121]
January 20, 1961 November 22, 1963
[n 7]
Democratic 44 (1960) Lyndon B. Johnson
36 100px Lyndon B. Johnson
(1908–1973)
[122][123]
November 22, 1963 January 20, 1969 Democratic vacant[n 3]
45 (1964) Hubert Humphrey
37 Richard Nixon - Presidential portrait.jpg Richard Nixon
(1913–1994)
[124][125][126]
January 20, 1969 August 9, 1974
[n 4]
Republican 46 (1968) Spiro Agnew[n 4]
January 20, 1969 – October 10, 1973
47 (1972)
vacant[n 3]
October 10, 1973 – December 6, 1973
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973 – August 9, 1974
38 100px Gerald Ford
(1913–2006)
[127][128][129]
August 9, 1974 January 20, 1977 Republican vacant[n 3]
August 9, 1974 – December 19, 1974
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974 – January 20, 1977
39 James E. Carter - portrait.gif Jimmy Carter
(1924– )
[130][131][132]
January 20, 1977 January 20, 1981 Democratic 48 (1976) Walter Mondale
40 100px Ronald Reagan
(1911–2004)
[133][134][135]
January 20, 1981 January 20, 1989 Republican 49 (1980) George H. W. Bush
50 (1984)
41 100px George H. W. Bush
(1924– )
[136][137][138]
January 20, 1989 January 20, 1993 Republican 51 (1988) Dan Quayle
42 100px Bill Clinton
(1946– )
[139][140][141]
January 20, 1993 January 20, 2001 Democratic 52 (1992) Al Gore
53 (1996)
43 George-W-Bush.jpeg George W. Bush
(1946– )
[142][143][144]
January 20, 2001 January 20, 2009 Republican 54 (2000) Dick Cheney
55 (2004)
44 Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg Barack Obama
(1961– )
[145][146][147]
January 20, 2009 Incumbent Democratic 56 (2008) Joe Biden

Living former presidents[edit]

As of January 2009, there are four living former presidents of the United States. The most recent death of a former president was that of Gerald Ford (1974–1977), on December 26, 2006. The most recently serving former president to die was Ronald Reagan (1981-1989), on June 5, 2004.

President Term of office Date of birth
Jimmy Carter 1977–1981 (1924-10-01) October 1, 1924 (age 90)
George H. W. Bush 1989–1993 (1924-06-12) June 12, 1924 (age 90)
Bill Clinton 1993–2001 (1946-08-19) August 19, 1946 (age 68)
George W. Bush 2001–2009 (1946-07-06) July 6, 1946 (age 68)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ↑ 1.0 1.1 A presidency is defined as consecutive time in office served by a single person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Gerald Ford assumed the presidency after the resignation of Richard Nixon, serving out the remainder of what would have been Nixon's second term. The fact that Ford was not voted into office does not affect the numbering, which makes him the 38th president. In addition, under this numbering, Grover Cleveland is counted as having two separate presidencies, having served two non-consecutive terms.
  2. ↑ 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 Died in office of natural causes.
  3. ↑ 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1967, there was no provision for filling a vacancy in the Vice Presidency. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill such a vacancy under the provisions of the Twenty-fifth Amendment when he appointed Gerald Ford. Ford later became the second president to fill a vice presidential vacancy when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him.
  4. ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Resigned.
  5. ↑ Being the first vice president to assume the presidency, Tyler set a precedent that a vice president who assumes the office of president becomes a fully functioning president who has his own presidency, as opposed to just a caretaker president. His political opponents attempted to refer to him as "Acting President", but he refused to allow that. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution put Tyler's precedent into the Constitution.
  6. ↑ Former Democrat who ran for Vice President on Whig ticket. Clashed with Whig congressional leaders and was expelled from the Whig party in 1841.
  7. ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Assassinated.
  8. ↑ 8.0 8.1 Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson were, respectively, a Republican and a Democrat who ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.
  9. ↑ Andrew Johnson did not identify with the two main parties while president and tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union label. His failure to build a true National Union Party left Johnson without a party.
  10. ↑ This term was shortened by 43 days due to the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution going into effect, moving inauguration day from March 4 to January 20.
  11. ↑ Dwight Eisenhower is the first president to have been legally prohibited by the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution from seeking a third term.

References[edit]

  1. ↑ "The Constitution: Amendments 11–27". U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_amendments_11-27.html. Retrieved October 1, 2008. 
  2. ↑ "Excerpts from "Forgotten Presidents" - The Patriots Handbook, by George Grant". Harrold.org. http://www.harrold.org/rfhextra/PresidentsForgotten.html. Retrieved 2011-08-08. 
  3. ↑ Template:Harvnb
  4. ↑ "INGERSOLL, Jared, (1749–1822)". University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs. http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/taylor/essays/biography/6. Retrieved 2 November 2010.  </font></span>
  5. ↑ Russell, Francis (1962). The Shadow of Blooming Grove-Warren G. Harding In His Times. Easton Press. ISBN 0070543380. p. 591
  6. ↑ Template:Cite newspaper
  7. ↑ "Nixon Resigns". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  8. ↑ Donald (1996), p. 597.
  9. ↑ 9.0 9.1 Martin, Paul "Lincoln's Missing Bodyguard", Smithsonian Magazine, April 8, 2010, Retrieved November 15, 2010
  10. ↑ Donald (1996), p. 597.
  11. ↑ Olcott 315
  12. ↑ ""James B. Parker Revisited"". Ublib.buffalo.edu. 2004-06-11. http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/exhibits/panam/essays/rasuli/rasuli.html. Retrieved 2011-08-08. 
  13. ↑ ""Big Ben Parker and President McKinley's Assassination"". Math.buffalo.edu. http://www.math.buffalo.edu/~sww/0history/parker_and_mckinley.html. Retrieved 2011-08-08. 
  14. ↑ "Obama wins historic US election". BBC. November 5, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008. 
  15. ↑ Nagourney, Adam (November 4, 2008). "Obama Elected President as Racial Barrier Falls". The New York Times. Retrieved November 5, 2008. 
  16. ↑ "Obama: 'This is your victory'". CNN. November 5, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008. 
  17. ↑ Wallsten, Peter (November 5, 2008). "White Americans play major role in electing the first black president". Los Angeles Times. 
  18. ↑ Avila, Oscar (April 4, 2010). "Obama's census-form choice: 'Black'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 4, 2010. 
  19. ↑ Martin, Michel (October 29, 2008). "Asian writer ponders first Asian president too (transcript)". Tell Me More. NPR.org. http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=96126355. Retrieved April 18, 2010. "He'd be the first president born in Hawaii, for example." 
  20. ↑ Rudin, Ken (December 23, 2009). "Today's Junkie segment On TOTN: a political review Of 2009". Talk of the Nation (Political Junkie blog). NPR.org. http://www.npr.org/blogs/politicaljunkie/2009/12/todays_junkie_segment_on_totn_5.html. Retrieved April 18, 2010. "We began with the historic inauguration on Jan. 20β€”yes, the first president ever born in Hawaii ..." 
  21. ↑ The White House (March 12, 2007). "Biography of George Washington". Whitehouse.gov. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgewashington/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  22. ↑ "George Washington – no Political Party – 1st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/washington. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  23. ↑ "George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/gwashington.asp. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  24. ↑ "Biography of John Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnadams/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  25. ↑ "John Adams – Federalist Party – 2nd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/adams. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  26. ↑ "John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=2. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  27. ↑ "Biography of Thomas Jefferson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/thomasjefferson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  28. ↑ "Thomas Jefferson – Democratic-Republican Party – 3rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/jefferson. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  29. ↑ "Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=3. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  30. ↑ "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesmadison/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  31. ↑ "James Madison – Democratic-Republican Party – 4th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/madison. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  32. ↑ "James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=4. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  33. ↑ "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesmonroe/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  34. ↑ "James Monroe – Democratic-Republican Party – 5th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/monroe. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  35. ↑ "James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=5. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  36. ↑ "Biography of John Quincy Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnquincyadams/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  37. ↑ "John Quincy Adams – Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, WHIG Party – 6th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/johnqadams. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  38. ↑ "John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=6. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  39. ↑ "Biography of Andrew Jackson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/andrewjackson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  40. ↑ "Andrew Jackson – Democratic-Republican Party – 7th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/jackson. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  41. ↑ "Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=7. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  42. ↑ "Biography of Martin Van Buren". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/martinvanburen/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  43. ↑ "Martin Van Buren – Democratic-Republican, Democratic, and Free Soil Party – 8th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/vanburen. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  44. ↑ "Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=8. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  45. ↑ "Biography of William Henry Harrison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamhenryharrison/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  46. ↑ "William Henry Harrison – WHIG Party – 9th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/williamhenryharrison. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  47. ↑ "William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=9. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  48. ↑ "Biography of John Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johntyler/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  49. ↑ "John Tyler – No Party – 10th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/tyler. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  50. ↑ "John Tyler (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=10. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  51. ↑ "Biography of James Polk". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamespolk/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  52. ↑ "James Polk – Democratic Party – 11th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/polk. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  53. ↑ "James K. Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=11. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  54. ↑ "Biography of Zachary Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/zacharytaylor/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  55. ↑ "Zachary Taylor – WHIG Party – 12th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/taylor. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  56. ↑ "Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=12. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  57. ↑ "Biography of Millard Fillmore". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/millardfillmore/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  58. ↑ "Millard Filmore – WHIG Party – 13th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/fillmore. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  59. ↑ "Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 – March 8, 1874)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=13. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  60. ↑ "Biography of Franklin Pierce". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklinpierce/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  61. ↑ "Franklin Pierce – Democratic Party – 14th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/pierce. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  62. ↑ "Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=14. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  63. ↑ "Biography of James Buchanan". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesbuchanan/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  64. ↑ "James Buchanan – Democratic Party – 15th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/buchanan. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  65. ↑ "James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=15. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  66. ↑ "Biography of Abraham Lincoln". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/abrahamlincoln/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  67. ↑ "Abraham Lincoln – Republic, National Union Party – 16th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/lincoln. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  68. ↑ "Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=16. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  69. ↑ "Biography of Andrew Johnson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/andrewjohnson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  70. ↑ "Andrew Johnson – National Union Party – 17th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/andrewjohnson. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  71. ↑ "Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=17. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  72. ↑ "Biography of Ulysses S. Grant". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/ulyssessgrant/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  73. ↑ "Ulysses S. Grant – National Union Party – 18th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/grant. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  74. ↑ "Ulysses S. Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=18. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  75. ↑ "Biography of Rutherford B. Hayes". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/rutherfordbhayes/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  76. ↑ "Rutherford B. Hayes – Republican Party – 19th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/hayes. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  77. ↑ "Rutherford B. Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=19. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  78. ↑ "Biography of James Garfield". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesgarfield/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  79. ↑ "James Garfield – Republican Party – 20th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/garfield. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  80. ↑ "James A. Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=20. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  81. ↑ "Biography of Chester Arthur". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/chesterarthur/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  82. ↑ "Chester A. Arthur – Republican Party – 21st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/arthur. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  83. ↑ "Chester A. Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=21. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  84. ↑ 84.0 84.1 "Grover Cleveland – Democratic Party – 22nd and 24th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/cleveland. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  85. ↑ 85.0 85.1 "Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=22. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  86. ↑ "Biography of Benjamin Harrison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/benjaminharrison/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  87. ↑ "William Henry Harrison – Whig Party – 23rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/benjaminharrison. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  88. ↑ "Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=23. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  89. ↑ "Biography of William McKinley". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williammckinley/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  90. ↑ "William McKinley – Republican Party – 25th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/mckinley. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  91. ↑ "William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=24. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  92. ↑ "Biography of Theodore Roosevelt". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/theodoreroosevelt/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  93. ↑ "Theodore Roosevelt – Republican, Bull Moose Party – 26th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/teddyroosevelt. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  94. ↑ "Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=25. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  95. ↑ "Biography of William Howard Taft". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamhowardtaft/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  96. ↑ "William Howard Taft – Republican Party – 27th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/taft. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  97. ↑ "William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=26. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  98. ↑ "Biography of Woodrow Wilson". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/woodrowwilson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  99. ↑ "Woodrow Wilson – Democratic Party – 28th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/wilson. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  100. ↑ "Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=27. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  101. ↑ "Biography of Warren G. Harding". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/warrenharding/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  102. ↑ "Warren Harding – Republican Party – 29th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/wilson. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  103. ↑ "Warren G. Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=28. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  104. ↑ "Biography of Calvin Coolidge". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/calvincoolidge/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  105. ↑ "Calvin Coolidge – Republican Party – 30th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/wilson. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  106. ↑ "Calvin Coolidge (July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=29. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  107. ↑ "Biography of Herbert Hoover". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/herberthoover/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  108. ↑ "Herbert Hoover – Republican Party – 31st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/wilson. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  109. ↑ "Herbert Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=30. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  110. ↑ "Biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt". Whitehouse.gov. March 20, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklindroosevelt/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  111. ↑ "Franklin D. Roosevelt – Democratic Party – 32nd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/fdr. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  112. ↑ "Franklin D. Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=31. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  113. ↑ "Biography of Harry S Truman". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/harrystruman/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  114. ↑ "Harry S. Truman – Democratic Party – 33rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/fdr. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  115. ↑ "Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=32. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  116. ↑ "Biography of Dwight D. Eisenhower". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/dwightdeisenhower/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  117. ↑ "Dwight D. Eisenhower – Democratic Party – 34th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/eisenhower. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  118. ↑ "Dwight D. Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=33. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  119. ↑ "Biography of John F. Kennedy". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  120. ↑ "John F. Kennedy – Democratic Party – 35th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/kennedy. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  121. ↑ "John F. Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=34. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  122. ↑ "Lyndon B. Johnson – Democratic Party – 36th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/kennedy. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  123. ↑ "Lyndon B. Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=35. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  124. ↑ "Richard M. Nixon". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/richardnixon/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  125. ↑ "Richard Nixon – Republican Party – 37th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/nixon. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  126. ↑ "Richard M. Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=36. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  127. ↑ "Biography of Gerald R. Ford". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/geraldford/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  128. ↑ "Gerald Ford – Republican Party – 38th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ford. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  129. ↑ "Gerald R. Ford (July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=37. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  130. ↑ "Biography of Jimmy Carter". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jimmycarter. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  131. ↑ "Jimmy Carter – Democratic Party – 39th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ford. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  132. ↑ "Jimmy Carter (October 1, 1924 β€“ )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=38. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  133. ↑ "Biography of Ronald Reagan". Whitehouse.gov. June 25, 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/ronaldreagan/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  134. ↑ "Ronald Reagan – Republican Party – 40th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ford. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  135. ↑ "Ronald Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=39. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  136. ↑ "Biography of George Herbert Walker Bush". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgehwbush/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  137. ↑ "George H. W. Bush – Republican Party – 41st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/georgebush. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  138. ↑ "George Bush (June 12, 1924 β€“ )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=40. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  139. ↑ "Biography of William J. Clinton". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamjclinton/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  140. ↑ "Bill Clinton – Democratic Party – 42nd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/billclinton. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  141. ↑ "Bill Clinton (August 19, 1946 β€“ )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=41. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  142. ↑ "Biography of President George W. Bush". Whitehouse.gov. February 25, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgewbush/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  143. ↑ "George W. Bush – Republican Party – 43rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/georgewbush. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  144. ↑ "George W. Bush (July 6, 1946 β€“ )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=42. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  145. ↑ "President Barack Obama". Whitehouse.gov. January 20, 2009. http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/president_obama/. Retrieved January 20, 2009. 
  146. ↑ "Barack Obama – Democratic Party – 44th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/obama. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  147. ↑ "Barack Obama (August 4, 1961 β€“ )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=43. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  148. </ol>

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