Imperator (Latin) or Emperor was a title originally given under the Republic of Rome (before 49 B.C.) to an army commander after winning a great victory and was held only so long as he remained in command of troops. Later, the Roman Senate allowed such commanders to retain the title upon retirement. The first to use the title continuously was Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.) who attained the rank with his first great victories in 58. B.C. When the Roman Empire was established in 27 B.C., the first ruler, Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.) assumed the title Imperator and gave the word its present meaning, the supreme ruler of a state controlling a large territory, usually including a number of sub-states which had been conquered by the dominant state.
- Percy L. Greaves, Jr. "Mises Made Easier ", 1974. Referenced 2014-07-16.