Normans were successors to the Vikings who seized and settled in Normandy (area NW of Paris, France, bordering on the English channel) in the ninth and tenth centuries. Their name is derived from Northmen or Norsemen, terms then used for Scandinavians. They adopted Christianity and the French language before undertaking conquests in England, Sicily, parts of Italy and France. Once victorious, the Normans established law and order, while accepting many of the customs of the countries they conquered. In Sicily and southern Italy, they took the part of the downtrodden Christians against their Saracen masters. The best known Norman was William II (1027-1087), Duke of Normandy and a pretender to the English throne. On the death of Edward the Confessor (1002-1066), he invaded England with the Pope's approval and defeated King Harold II in the Battle of Hastings (1066). He was crowned King William I of England, and is known as William the Conqueror. Within five years, he conquered all England, established feudalism, granted the lands to his henchmen and installed Normans in all official Church and State positions.
- ↑ Percy L. Greaves, Jr. "Mises Made Easier ", 1974. Referenced 2014-08-17.