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Rothbardianism is an economic and sociopolitical worldview based on a libertarian interpretation of historical development by examining individuals and their relationship with statism, the Austrian school of economics, the individualist free-market anarchism first theorized by Lysander Spooner and Benjamin Tucker, a deontological natural-rights approach to explaining the negative value of the state, and a praxeological approach to understanding the free-market and it's proposed necessity.

Rothbardianism is based upon the political and legal theories of 20th century economist and political philosopher Murray Rothbard, who first matched the praxeology of Ludwig von Mises to individualist anarchism and the theory of natural rights espoused by John Locke, and used this form of thought to in turn formulate anarcho-capitalism. Rothbardianism encompasses an economic theory, a sociological theory, a supportive set of axioms including the non-aggression principle, and an examination of state exploitation as a means of studying social change.[citation needed]