Europe is the second smallest continent on Earth. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian seas. The continent’s generally accepted eastern boundary runs along the Ural Mountains and the Emba (Zhem) River of Kazakhstan. Its area includes numerous islands, archipelagoes, and peninsulas. Indented by bays, fjords, and seas, continental Europe’s irregular coastline is about 24,000 mi (38,000 km) long. Area (approximate, including European Russia): 4,000,000 sq mi (10,400,000 sq km). Population (2007 est.): 700,000,000.
- In Encyclopædia Britannica. Europe, referenced 2011-07-06.