Ludwig von Mises Institute

President of the United States

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The President of the United States is the head of the executive branch of the United States federal government. His power is described by Article II of the United States Constitution. The president is elected by an Electoral College, made up of electors in each state based on state population, every four years.

The Constitution and the presidency[edit]

The powers of the presidency are described in Article II of the United States Constitution. Among the enumerated powers are:

  • Act as commander in chief of the army and navy, and the militia when called up
  • Issue pardons for crimes against the United States
  • Make treaties (with the consent of the Senate)
  • Appoint ambassadors, public ministers, and judges (with the consent of the Senate)
  • Make appointments of the same during Senate recesses
  • Receive ambassadors
  • Enforce laws
  • Commission officers of the United States

In addition, the 12th amendment changes the method of elections, the 20th amendment defines the date of changeover for presidential terms, the 22nd amendment establishes term limits, and the 25th amendment clarifies various issues related to succession.

List of Presidents[edit]

Presidency President Took office Left office Party Vice President
1 George Washington April 30, 1789 March 4, 1797 no party John Adams
2 John Adams March 4, 1797 March 4, 1801 Federalist Thomas Jefferson
3 Thomas Jefferson March 4, 1801 March 4, 1809 Democratic-
Republican
Aaron Burr
George Clinton
4 James Madison March 4, 1809 March 4, 1817 Democratic-
Republican
George Clinton
March 4, 1809 – April 20, 1812
vacant
April 20, 1812 – March 4, 1813
Elbridge Gerry
March 4, 1813 – November 23, 1814
vacant
November 23, 1814 – March 4, 1817
5 James Monroe March 4, 1817 March 4, 1825 Democratic-
Republican
Daniel D. Tompkins
6 John Quincy Adams March 4, 1825 March 4, 1829 Democratic-
Republican

National
Republican
John C. Calhoun
7 Andrew Jackson March 4, 1829 March 4, 1837 Democratic John C. Calhoun
March 4, 1829 – December 28, 1832
vacant
December 28, 1832 – March 4, 1833
Martin Van Buren
8 Martin Van Buren March 4, 1837 March 4, 1841 Democratic Richard Mentor Johnson
9 William Henry Harrison March 4, 1841 April 4, 1841 Whig John Tyler
10 John Tyler April 4, 1841 March 4, 1845 Whig
April 4, 1841 – September 13, 1841
vacant
no party
September 13, 1841 – March 4, 1845
11 James K. Polk March 4, 1845 March 4, 1849 Democratic George M. Dallas
12 Zachary Taylor March 4, 1849 July 9, 1850 Whig Millard Fillmore
13 Millard Fillmore July 9, 1850 March 4, 1853 Whig vacant
14 Franklin Pierce March 4, 1853 March 4, 1857 Democratic William R. King
March 4, 1853 – April 18, 1853
vacant
April 18, 1853 – March 4, 1857
15 James Buchanan March 4, 1857 March 4, 1861 Democratic John C. Breckinridge
16 Abraham Lincoln March 4, 1861 April 15, 1865 Republican
National Union
Hannibal Hamlin
Andrew Johnson
17 Andrew Johnson April 15, 1865 March 4, 1869 Democratic
National Union
vacant
National Union
no party
18 Ulysses S. Grant March 4, 1869 March 4, 1877 Republican Schuyler Colfax
Henry Wilson
March 4, 1873 – November 22, 1875
vacant November 22, 1875 – March 4, 1877
19 Rutherford B. Hayes March 4, 1877 March 4, 1881 Republican William A. Wheeler
20 James A. Garfield March 4, 1881 September 19, 1881 Republican Chester A. Arthur
21 Chester A. Arthur September 19, 1881 March 4, 1885 Republican vacant
22 Grover Cleveland March 4, 1885 March 4, 1889 Democratic Thomas A. Hendricks
March 4, 1885 – November 25, 1885
vacant
November 25, 1885 – March 4, 1889
23 Benjamin Harrison March 4, 1889 March 4, 1893 Republican Levi P. Morton
24 Grover Cleveland
(second term)
March 4, 1893 March 4, 1897 Democratic Adlai E. Stevenson I
25 William McKinley March 4, 1897 September 14, 1901 Republican Garret Hobart
March 4, 1897 – November 21, 1899
vacant
November 21, 1899 – March 4, 1901
Theodore Roosevelt
26 Theodore Roosevelt
September 14, 1901 March 4, 1909 Republican vacant
Charles W. Fairbanks
27 William Howard Taft March 4, 1909 March 4, 1913 Republican James S. Sherman
March 4, 1909 – October 30, 1912
vacant
October 30, 1912 – March 4, 1913
28 Woodrow Wilson March 4, 1913 March 4, 1921 Democratic Thomas R. Marshall
29 Warren G. Harding March 4, 1921 August 2, 1923 Republican Calvin Coolidge
30 Calvin Coolidge August 2, 1923 March 4, 1929 Republican vacant
Charles G. Dawes
31 Herbert Hoover March 4, 1929 March 4, 1933 Republican Charles Curtis
32 Franklin D. Roosevelt March 4, 1933 April 12, 1945 Democratic John Nance Garner
Henry A. Wallace
Harry S. Truman
33 Harry S. Truman April 12, 1945 January 20, 1953 Democratic vacant
Alben W. Barkley
34 Dwight D. Eisenhower January 20, 1953 January 20, 1961 Republican Richard Nixon
35 John F. Kennedy January 20, 1961 November 22, 1963 Democratic Lyndon B. Johnson
36 Lyndon B. Johnson November 22, 1963 January 20, 1969 Democratic vacant
Hubert Humphrey
37 Richard Nixon January 20, 1969 August 9, 1974 Republican Spiro Agnew
January 20, 1969 – October 10, 1973
vacant
October 10, 1973 – December 6, 1973
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973 – August 9, 1974
38 Gerald Ford August 9, 1974 January 20, 1977 Republican vacant
August 9, 1974 – December 19, 1974
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974 – January 20, 1977
39 Jimmy Carter January 20, 1977 January 20, 1981 Democratic Walter Mondale
40 Ronald Reagan January 20, 1981 January 20, 1989 Republican George H. W. Bush
41 George H. W. Bush January 20, 1989 January 20, 1993 Republican Dan Quayle
42 Bill Clinton January 20, 1993 January 20, 2001 Democratic Al Gore
43 George W. Bush January 20, 2001 January 20, 2009 Republican Dick Cheney
44 Barack Obama January 20, 2009 Incumbent Democratic Joe Biden

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