|United States of America|
|Motto: In God We Trust (official)
E Pluribus Unum (traditional)
(Latin: Out of Many, One)
|Anthem: "The Star-Spangled Banner"
|Largest city||New York City|
|Official language(s)||None at federal level[a]|
|National language||English (de facto)[b]|
|Government||Federal presidential constitutional republic|
|-||President||Barack Obama (D)|
|-||Vice President||Joe Biden (D)|
|-||Speaker of the House||John Boehner (R)|
|-||Chief Justice||John Roberts|
|-||Lower House||House of Representatives|
|Independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain|
|-||Declared||July 4, 1776|
|-||Recognized||September 3, 1783|
|-||Current constitution||June 21, 1788|
|-||Total|| 9,826,675 km2 [c](3rd/4th)
3,794,101 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2010 estimate|
|-||Total||$14.624 trillion (1st)|
|-||Per capita||$47,123 (6th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2010 estimate|
|-||Total||$14.624 trillion (1st)|
|-||Per capita||$47,132 (9th)|
|Gini (2007)||45.0 (44th)|
|HDI (2010)||0.902 (very high) (4th)|
|EFI (2011)||77.8 (high) (9th)|
|CPI (2010)||7.1 (high) (22nd)|
|GIR (2009)||85 (strong)|
|DBR (2011)|| (very high) (5th)|
|Currency||United States dollar ($) (
|Time zone||(UTCâˆ’5 to âˆ’10)|
|-||Summer (DST)||(UTCâˆ’4 to âˆ’10)|
|Date formats||m/d/yy (AD)|
|Drives on the||right|
|Internet TLD||.us .gov .mil .edu|
|^ a. English is the official language of at least 28 statesâ€”some sources give a higher figure, based on differing definitions of "official". English and Hawaiian are both official languages in the state of Hawaii.
^ c. Whether the United States or the People's Republic of China is larger is disputed. The figure given is from the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency's World Factbook. Other sources give smaller figures. All authoritative calculations of the country's size include only the 50 states and the District of Columbia, not the territories.^ d. The population estimate includes people whose usual residence is in the fifty states and the District of Columbia, including noncitizens. It does not include either those living in the territories, amounting to more than 4 million U.S. citizens (most in Puerto Rico), or U.S. citizens living outside the United States.
Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions. The two most traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65), in which a northern Union of states defeated a secessionist Confederacy of 11 southern slave states, and the Great Depression of the 1930s, an economic downturn during which about a quarter of the labor force lost its jobs. Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation state. Over a span of more than five decades, the economy has achieved steady growth, low unemployment and inflation, and rapid advances in technology.
 Economic characteristics
- Currency: United States dollar (ISO code: USD)
- Central bank discount rate: 0.5% (31 December 2009)
- Commercial banks lending rate: 5.09% (31 December 2008)
- Stock of money (M1): $1.436 trillion (31 December 2008)
- Quasi money (with M1 makes M2): $10.99 trillion (31 December 2008)
- According to an estimate, for every 1.65 employed persons in the private sector, 1 person receives welfare assistance. Also, for every 1.25 employed persons in the private sector, 1 person receives welfare assistance or works for the government.
 Notable events:
- Banking crisis: August 1814, 1818-1819, January 1825, 1836-1838, March 1841, August 1857, December 1861, April 1864, September 1873, May 1884, 1890, March 1907, July 1914, 1929-1933, 1984-1991
- Years in inflation: 1.4% (share of years 1790-2009 with annual inflation above 20 per cent per annum)
- Public default: 1790 (external), 1790, 1841-1842, 1873-1884, 1933 (domestic)
|Statistic / Year||1999||2000||2001||2002||2003||2004||2005||2006||2007||2008|
|GDP (million USD)||9 216 200||9 764 800||10 075 900||10 417 600||10 908 000||11 630 900||12 364 100||13 116 500||13 741 600||14 093 300|
|Govt. debt (% of GDP)||32.957||44.103||46.834||47.680||48.016||47.128||47.484||55.662|
|Govt. revenue (% of GDP)||20.431||18.187||17.531||17.609||18.856||19.569||19.659||17.874|
|Govt. expenses (% of GDP)||19.857||20.717||21.324||21.186||21.590||21.442||21.803||23.464|
|Debt to revenue (years)||1.613||2.425||2.671||2.708||2.546||2.408||2.415||3.114|
Note: statistical data was rounded. Different sources may use different methodologies for their estimates. Debt to revenue is calculated by dividing the two variables from their original ('unrounded') values. It represents how long it would a government take to repay its entire debt if it used its whole revenue for this purpose.
- "United States". The World Factbook. CIA. 2009-09-30. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html. Retrieved 2010-01-05 (area given in square kilometers).
- "Resident Population Data â€“ 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-dens-text.php. Retrieved 2010-12-22.
- "United States". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2007&ey=2010&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=111&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=40&pr.y=10. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- "Human Development Report 2010". United Nations. 2010. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Tables_reprint.pdf. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "Index of Economic Freedom 2011". The Heritage Foundation. 2011. http://www.heritage.org/index/Country/UnitedStates. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2010". Transparency International. 2010. http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2010/in_detail. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
- "Global Integrity Report 2009". Global Integrity. 2009. http://report.globalintegrity.org/United%20States/2009. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
- "Doing Business Report 2011". International Finance Corporation, World Bank. 2011. http://www.doingbusiness.org/data/exploreeconomies/united-states/. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
- Feder, Jody (2007-01-25). "English as the Official Language of the United Statesâ€”Legal Background and Analysis of Legislation in the 110th Congress". Ilw.com (Congressional Research Service). http://www.ilw.com/immigrationdaily/news/2007,0515-crs.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-19.
- CIA - The World Factbook. "United States", from The World Factbook. Referenced 2010-09-21.
- Gary D. Alexander, Secretary of Public Welfare, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. "Welfareâ€™s Failure and the Solution", The American Enterprise Institute, July 2012. Referenced 2012-12-04.
- Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth S. Rogoff. "This Time is Different", Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-14216-6, p. 389-390. (The list does not claim to be complete.) Referenced 2011-07-21.
- Carmen M. Reinhart. "This Time is Different Chartbook: Country Histories on Debt, Default, and Financial Crises" (pdf), March 3, 2010, p. 116. (The list does not claim to be complete.) Referenced 2011-07-21.
- World Bank. "United States: GDP", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-09-21.
- World Bank. "United States: government debt", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-09-21.
- World Bank. "United States: government revenue", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-09-21.
- World Bank. "United States: government expenses", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-09-21.
- Central bank of United States
- Studies from the Library of Congress (1986-1998)
- BBC country profile
- Why Did 17 Million Students Go to College? by Richard Vedder, October 2010
- The U.S. Isn't as Free as It Used to Be by Terry Miller, January 2010
- A look at Obama's 2011 budget for govt agencies, Associated Press, February 2010
- China Will Keep Trimming Treasurys: Jim Rogers by Antonia Oprita, February 2010
- August 19, 2010 - Cost of Government Day Has Arrived!, 2010
- 25 American Products That Rely On Huge Protective Tariffs To Survive by Gus Lubin, September 2010
- FDIC says list of â€˜problem banksâ€™ is still growing, BizTimes Daily, May 2011
- Some federal workers more likely to die than lose jobs by Dennis Cauchon, July 2011
- U.S. borrows 46 cents of every dollar it spends by Stephen Dinan, December 2012
- United States at Wikipedia