August 1 (add):
- 1838 – Trinidad became the first British colony to completely abolish slavery; the remaining colonies followed exactly two years later.
- 1946 – After the most severe hyperinflation in history, Hungary replaced the pengő with the forint at the exchange rate of 400 octillion (4×1029) pengő to one forint.
August 2 (add):
- 1937 – The Marijuana Tax Act was passed in the United States, marking the first time cannabis was regulated by the federal government.
August 3 (add):
- 1780 – Etienne Bonnot de Condillac, French liberal philosopher and libertarian pioneer, died.
August 5 (add):
- 1861 – President Abraham Lincoln signed the Revenue Act of 1861, imposing the first income tax in the United States.
- 2011 – Standard & Poor's downgraded the US government's credit rating to AA+ for the first time.
August 6 (add):
- 1945 – Under President Harry S. Truman, the U. S. dropped the first nuclear weapon used in warfare on the city of Hiroshima, Japan, killing at least 100,000 people.
August 9 (add):
- 1974 – President Richard Nixon became the first President to resign from office, following the revelation of his purported involvement in the Watergate scandal.
August 11 (add):
- 1987 – Alan Greenspan was confirmed by the US Senate as the 13th Chairman of the Federal Reserve.
August 13 (add):
- 1912 – The United States enacted the Radio Act of 1912, requiring that amateur radio enthusiasts be licensed and severely limiting the wavelengths available to them.
- 1961 – East Germany began construction of the Berlin Wall to stop emigration and encourage the establishment of a Communist state.
August 14 (add):
- 1764 – In Boston, a mob directed by Samuel Adams began violently protesting the Stamp Act, marking the first revolutionary act against British tyranny.
- 1935 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Social Security Act, creating a social insurance program under which payroll taxes funded benefits for the elderly.
August 15 (add):
- 1971 – The United States stopped converting dollars to gold, destroying the country's last vestige of a gold standard.
August 16 (add):
- 1819 – Citizens of Great Britain, protesting lack of suffrage and the Corn Laws, were attacked by cavalry.
August 19 (add):
- 1991 – Hardline Soviet leaders, opposed to liberalizing reforms supported by President Mikhail Gorbachev, initiated a short-lived coup d'état.
August 20 (add):
August 25 (add):
- 1776 – David Hume, Scottish philosopher and economist, died.
August 27 (add):
- 1914 – Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, early Austrian economist and mentor of Ludwig von Mises, died.
August 28 (add):
August 29 (add):
- 1632 – John Locke, the "Father of Liberalism" and author of Two Treatises of Government, was born.