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September 5 ():
- 1798 – Conscription is made mandatory in France by the Jourdan law.
- 1836 – Sam Houston is elected as the first president of the Republic of Texas.
- 1877 – Indian Wars: Oglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse is bayoneted by a United States soldier after resisting confinement in a guardhouse at Fort Robinson in Nebraska.
- 1882 – Labor Day is observed for the first time in the United States by the Central Labor Union of New York.
- 1942 – World War II: Japanese high command orders withdrawal at Milne Bay, first Japanese defeat in the Pacific War.
- 1945 – Cold War: Igor Gouzenko, a Soviet Union embassy clerk, defects to Canada, exposing Soviet espionage in North America, signalling the beginning of the Cold War.
- 1978 – Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat begin peace process at Camp David, Maryland.