Libertarian Movement (Italy)
September 24, 2005 (launched as cultural movement)|
September 2007 (founded as political movement-party)
|Newspaper||Enclave, I Fogli di Enclave|
|Ideology||agorism, anarcho-capitalism, anti-federalism, anti-statism, classical liberalism, euroscepticism, free market, Individualism, laissez-faire, liberism, libertarianism, minarchism, non-interventionism, non-violence, non-voting, objectivism, paleo-libertarianism, voluntaryism|
|Official colors||Yellow or gold|
Politics of Italy|
The terms Libertarian Movement (Movimento Libertario in Italian, acronym ML) are used here to refer to a political party and a cultural movement organisation based in Italy characterized by a libertarianism cultural and political platform: minimal regulation of Italian society, liberism of the markets, strong defense of natural rights of liberty and property, non-interventionism in foreign policy, and laissez-faire freedom of trade and travel to all foreign countries.
- 1 History
- 2 Cultural diffusion
- 3 Platform
- 3.1 Spectrum internal libertarianism
- 3.2 Structure and membership
- 3.3 Principles
- 3.4 Purpose
- 3.5 Relationship to major parties
- 3.6 Relationship with other liberal italians intellectual associations and political party
- 3.7 Violence suffered
- 3.8 Activities
- 4 Curiosity
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The Movimento Libertario was originally only an Italian cultural association for the dissemination of libertarianism.
As a cultural association, the Movimento Libertario began on September 24, 2005, in Treviglio with the writing of the "Manifesto and Constitution of the Movimento Libertario" by Leonardo Facco.
The Movimento Libertario became also an Italian political subject when it is officially founded in September 2007 by Leonardo Facco, Giorgio Fidenato and Marcello Mazzilli, in order to defend life, liberty and property of each individual within a strong liberist system of free market, against any kind of aggression and/or coercion.
The Association has its registered office in the Municipality of Pordenone.
The Movimento Libertario has as its symbol a round disk with a yellow-gold background in reference to the gold standard and also to its membership in the anarcho-capitalist movement.
The symbol is part of the assets of the Association.
Inside the top are the words in Italian (in black color) "Proprietà" and "Libertà", and are references to natural rights believed essential by libertarians.
In the center of the disk, the symbol of the movement, is a stylized image of a black crossbow.
The weapon is an homage to nearby Switzerland and in particular to legendary William Tell, as a symbol of fiscal rebellion for federalist political autonomy and independence of people.
Below the image appears the written "Movimento Libertario"; the terms are used in reference to political entity but also to define the nature of individual human action (Movimento) and to define, in broad sense, those theories which give primacy to individual choice before the claims of any political power (Libertario).
The question on the term Libertario for the Italian Libertarianism
The terms movimento libertario (libertarian movement in English) in Italian language has a dual meanings.
Historically, first generally refers to the Italian anarchism and European anarchist movements (libertarism) with a marxian and social anarchist ispirations.
The anarchist socialist tradition use the term libertario to describe themselves and their ideas since 1857.
The French anarchist communist Joseph Déjacque employed the term libertario in a political sense in an open letter criticizing Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.
Déjacque said Proudhon was "libéral et non LIBERTAIRE", that is, the neologism was coined specifically as a distinction from the classical liberalism that Proudhon advocated in relation to economic exchange, in contrast to the more libertarian communist approach advocated by Déjacque.
From 1858 until 1861 Déjacque published in New York a journal called Le Libertaire: Journal du Mouvement Social.
Since the 1890s the term "libertarianism" has often been used as a synonym for left wing anarchism or libertarian socialism, and exclusively so until the 1950s in the United States.
In the '60s of XX century, Italian jurist and philosophy classic liberal, Bruno Leoni, introduced in Italy, American libertarianism concepts of natural right and ideology of private property (propertarianism) based on theorizations of Murray Newton Rothbard book Man, Economy, and State.
In 1961, Leoni wrote his book Freedom and the Law in English, result of lectures in California in 1958.
In this work he points out the importance of the historical law (Roman jus civile and English Common law) and he is very critical towards modern legislation and the idea that law can be the simple outcome of a political decision.
Reflections on the law of Leoni, including criticism of Hans Kelsen, help to better understand the extraordinary potential of the Austrian School of Social Sciences, which originated with Carl Menger, Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich von Hayek and Murray N. Rothbard.
Using the juridical methodological individualism, the analysis of institutions and the evolutionary origin of subjective value theory, Leoni has shown that not only the economy but the entire reflection on society can benefit greatly from the basic teachings of the Austrian school.
Leoni did not introduced the term libertarianism in Italy but only the concepts of this political theory that advocates the maximization of individual liberty in thought and action and the minimization or even abolition of the state.
So these concepts strongly anti-state and against monopolism (see especially the essay Mito e realtà dei monopoli, 1965), have been interpreted by many Italians observers and intellectuals critics as a subspecies of Italian anarchism (libertarism).
|Look up libertarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
In 1978 the French economist Henri Lepage with his book Demain le Capitalisme (Capitalism Tomorrow) based on an overview of the new libertarian thinkers, introduced in Europe the term libertarianism with the obvious intention to avoid misunderstandings; but after a decade of use of the Italian term libertario in reference to the concepts and principles of libertarianism, the libertarian ideas became famous under the name of libertarism.
So the meaning of the term libertario coexists in Italy with the traditional collectivist anarchism but also with the Anglo-Saxon meaning of libertarianism free market philosophy.
Italians libertarians of the Movimento Libertario use the Italian anarchic term libertario not to refer to European ideas and methods of traditional anarchism, but to refer to the concepts of principles of market liberalism.
They want also to remark and increase the cultural distance from Italian and European conception of liberalism, that in the XX century appeared as democratic liberalism forms of statism.
Italians libertarians of the ML are often prefer to define themselves as libertarians libertari but with adjective connotative of anarcho-capitalists, to distinguish themselves as pro-market supporters from the libertarians socialists or the traditionals anarchists.
It is prefers to use in the Italian anarchist context the indicative categories of anarcho-capitalism (as right anarchism) and anarcho-communist (as left anarchism) to indicate and clearly distinguish respectively the different anarchist school of thought with Rothbardian inspiration on market and property (like the ML) from the communist inspired groups.
Difference on concept of anarchy in the libertarian anarcho-capitalism from the others forms of anarchism
Anarcho-capitalism uses the following terms in ways that may differ from common usage or various anarchist movements.
The American libertarianism, whether in the anarcho-capitalist form that in its various meanings attributable, claims its presence in the vision of anarchism, although this comes especially from classical liberalism carried to its extreme and radical considerations.
The anarchism in the anarcho-capitalism philosophy is a nonviolent form, that derives to the purpose of eliminate the State to realize a free market anarchism as voluntary society, it is not an end in itself unlike of the European anarchism traditional array, but rather the natural consequence of opposition to the statism.
Anarcho-capitalism is an individualist anarchism political philosophy that advocates the elimination of the Sovereign state and the elevation of the sovereign individual in a free market.
Traditional and collectivists Italian anarchists, they judge the ML as not a real anarchist movement, but they think that rather is a ploy of the classic liberal elite and middle class to increase social inequality.
They also consider that the term libertario or at least inappropriate for the nature of the movement within the Italian historical context..
The members of the Movimento Libertario rejects the manipolation of their identity and image by traditional and collectivist anarchists, and claim for themselves the correctness of the use of the definition of Italian anarchist libertarian (libertari), stressing their opposition to the use of bombs and violence by the insurrectionary anarchism.
The criticism to the anarcho-collectivism about the future perspective of society
If the anarchism considers also the anarcho-capitalism as movement that tend to want to keep the rules without state, in turn the anarcho-capitalism considers acceptable only the rules that derives from natural rights.
The anarcho-capitalism libertarian criticizes the anarchism and collectivist anarchism, because they tends to focus without consistency on the objectives anti-statists, they both believe that a spontaneous order based on market competition and exchange is impossible.
According to the anarchocapitalist, the traditional anarchism tends only to develop itself as an ultimate violent goal, they interpret the concept of anarchy as synonymous of anomie without rules, scaring the people with the violence.
The term anarcho-capitalism was most likely coined in 1968 by Jarrett Wollstein and revived by economist Murray Rothbard. Rothbard used the term anarcho-capitalism to distinguish his philosophy from anarchism that opposes private property, as well as to distinguish it from other forms of individualist anarchism. Other terms sometimes used for this philosophy, though not necessarily outside anarcho-capitalist circles, include:
Traditional social anarchists are incapable of understanding the natural dynamics of free market economy choice and the difference with the corporative state economy, the anarcho-communism don't defend the freedom of choice through the abolition of property with the individual subordination to the community.
The Movimento Libertario believes that only the anarcho-capitalist option, based on private property and respect for natural rights, is a prerequisited for a future peaceful free-market society without a state in Italy.
The functions now performed by the Welfare State should return to free associations, community and voluntary philanthropic spirit.
In an anarcho-capitalist society, law enforcement, courts, and all other security services would be provided by voluntarily-funded competitors such as private defense agencies rather than through taxation, and money would be privately and competitively provided in an open market.
According to anarcho-capitalists, personal and economic activities would be regulated by the natural laws of the market and through private law rather than through politics.
Promoting a common framework of action and shared principles, does not mean that reality to must to be necessarily only a utilitarian development anarcho-capitalist model strictly, or necessarily a teleological-purposive as an anarcho-capitalist identity in terms of principal presence.
It is possible that within the general context of acceptance of property rights, free trade and non-aggression axiom between individuals, can be formed on the territory other future models related to different forms of social-economic libertarian perspectives in peaceful competition with each others.
Although it is highly doubtful that these future models of alternative development they can lead wealth and prosperity if will miss the awareness of an underlying future recognition about the respect of principles between people of enclaves.
Anarcho-capitalist libertarians believe that the only just, and/or most economically-beneficial, way to acquire property is through voluntary trade, gift, or labor-based original appropriation, rather than through aggression or fraud.
The Movimento Libertario want to match the prospective of context anarcho-capitalist the possible realizations of similar alternative developments.
Movimento Libertario, as cultural association intends to be an Italian promoter of the spread of classical liberalism and libertarian vision in policy, free market and economic liberalism in economy..
The motto is: "Everyone is free to do what he thinks is right for himself, without attacking anyone, and without attacking the property rights of others".
The movement's members believe that policy is especially spread of freedom as economic freedom culture: meetings, debates, on the web, and with conferences and publications 
Movimento Libertario is politically inspired by the classical liberalism of John Locke and the Founding Fathers of the United States conjugated to nineteenth-century American individualist anarchist strand of Benjamin Tucker, Henry David Thoreau and Lysander Spooner.
In economy it is inspired on lessons of the Austrian school and in particular to the theoric formulation of the philosopher and economist libertarian anarcho-capitalist Murray N. Rothbard.
The actions in favor of tax resistance, free entrepreneurship and political non-voting also recall the agorist reflections by Samuel Edward Konkin III although the Movimento Libertario not officially identify itself in programmatic positions and spectrum of the American left-libertarians.
Movimento Libertario also includes some aspects from the American model of liberty theorized by Robert Nozick (minarchism) and the Objectivism phylosophy described in novels by Ayn Rand.
The Movimento Libertario refers to freedom of association of the anarchic federalism, anarcho-capitalist free market society and to the Jeffersonian limited government of classical liberalism.
The term "federalism" as it is used by the Movimento Libertario, in a sense to be in favor of a political of decentralization and for a real local fiscality against the centralism of the national Italian State.
It is not used to mean the increase of central power.
The Movimento Libertario is an anti-federalist organization about the Europe, it is against the federal European Union government, preferring the voluntary accession and the unanimity of a Confederation.
Historians Italian thinkers of reference for the Movimento Libertario in economy and policy include Ferdinando Galiani, Cesare Beccaria, Paolo Balsamo, Filippo Mazzei, Emerico Amari, Francesco Ferrara, Giuseppe Todde, Giovanni Pinna Ferrà, Tullio Martello, Carlo Cattaneo, Edoardo Giretti, Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, Luigi Einaudi, Bruno Leoni, Gianfranco Miglio and Sergio Ricossa.
Leonardo Facco, thanks to the encounter with the most important Italian libertarian thinkers (Carlo Lottieri, Alberto Mingardi, Carlo Stagnaro, Guglielmo Piombini, Nicola Iannello) founded in 1996 in Treviglio the Leonardo Facco Editore an independent publishing house.
It works to spread the concepts about the defense of liberty, property and people's lives that they are threatened daily by the actions of states, governments and public authorities.
The published books dealing history, sociology, political science and issues related the ecology of the market.
The Movimento Libertario through to the Leonardo Facco Editore periodically publish two magazines: I Fogli di Enclave and the magazine Enclave which give space to various political issues, cultural, social and economic libertarians Italian and international..
I Fogli di Enclave is a free bimonthly publication, while the magazine Enclave is a quarterly magazine founded in March 1998, available by subscription.
The Movimento Libertario is actively working through the magazine Enclave with Italian free market members of Bruno Leoni Institute : Alberto Mingardi (co-editor), Carlo Stagnaro (co-director) and Carlo Lottieri (Scientific Committee).
In Scientific Committee of Enclave magazine belong also: Walter Block, David D. Friedman, Raimondo Cubeddu, Romano Bracalini, Hans Hermann Hoppe, John Hospers, Antonio Martino, Nicola Jannello, David B. Kopel, Pierre Lemieux, Tibor R. Machan, Jan Narveson, Wendy McElroy, Guglielmo Piombini, Ralph Raico, Alberto Pasolini Zanelli, Sergio Ricossa, Robert Sirico, Thomas S. Szasz, Alessandro Vitale.
The Movimento Libertario collaborates actively with the members of Swiss Liberist Party of Canton Ticino and their Association (ALT), in cultural and economic free market iniziatives (conferences and publications like I Fogli di Enclave) between libertarians subjects in Italy and Canton Ticino.
In January 2010, Leonardo Facco, announced the intention to delegate ownership of his publishing company to the Movimento Libertario, in order to promote the continuity in the future of the activities of the movement by ensuring private self-financing through the sale of books and content published.
Respecting the historical definition of libertarian, unlike to the Libertarian Party (United States), the Movimento Libertario want bring in Italy the same contents of others libertarians parties and movements in the world but with the agorist practice of the non-voting, thus not directly participating in political Italian elections with the symbol of the Movimento Libertario .
Although in fact the Movimento Libertario is an officially registered Italian political party, as anti-statist movement disclaims the State legality and its political elections.
As a formal Italian political party it may decide to participate in the Italian political competition (at different levels) supporting from the outside its candidates through civic lists, or support the claims of parties close to its cultural vision in order to make its voice and disseminate ideas .
The Movimento Libertario is not classifiable in the political-ideologic traditions of the twentieth century presents in Italy.
Like other libertarians entities in the world, the subject respects the political spectrum of Nolan Chart.
One of its slogans said: "Neither right nor left, nor centrist. Simply free is better".
Spectrum internal libertarianism
The Movimento Libertario is formally neutral as libertarian ideology, with an anarcho-capitalist vision, a voluntaryist organization and an agorist practices as characteristics.
Unlike the United States, in Italy and in the Movimento Libertario there are not internal controversies among the identity of libertarian term between libertarians members or a clear distinction between the right libertarian (paleolibertarian and libertarian conservatives) members and left libertarians (the latter understood in their sense of American left libertarians Rothbardian like agorist, panarchist not to the European libertarian socialists) because the libertarian schools no presents so significant differences in their common anti-state vision.
Moreover, these libertarian schools are not rooted in Italy if not with some representative members in the Movimento Libertario.
The Movimento Libertario considers crucial to encourage what is common and unites all the various libertarian orientations, seeking to promote the protection of private property, free market and the natural law through actions and non-violent and peaceful means.
Structure and membership
The bodies of internal administration include the Managing Director, Board of Directors (B.o. D.), Assembly of Members (Meeting of Shareholders), Groups of Territorial Association (clans), Board of Auditors, and the Enclave of Essays.
The Statute of the Movimento Libertario describes and regulates all bodies of internal administration and their function.
Leonardo Facco co-founder of the Association, represents (in according to the statute and to the internal democracy of members of Association) the role of Managing Director of the Movimento Libertario.
He represents the Movimento Libertario in their official activity.
The Movimento Libertario is organized by a system of free participation of shareholders, registered members, and sympathizers on the Italian territory.
Any adult who registers and pays a participation fee becomes a shareholder member of the movement and therefore acquired the right to vote and actively participate to the meetings of internal bodies.
Minors, even if authorized by a single parent, may be enrolled only as members sympathizers with no rights to vote.
Movimento Libertario in its founding act declares and acknowledges libertarian principles as internals to its Statute:
- The Freedom, understood as the absence of constraint is a natural right of the individual, which nobody (private or public organization) must threaten;
- The Government, in its various variants, forces people to obey blindly and accept legislation invasive and oppressive monopoly;
- Everyone has the right to seek their own happiness and that of his loved ones, taking responsibility for their actions;
- Each individual is entitled organize in freedom themselves to protect their lives and their belongings, particularly given the enormous difficulties posed by the power of politicians at all levels;
- The need to eliminate and reduce the state, politicians and bureaucracies in the everyday life, increasingly recognizing the dignity of all people working really, producing their own resources and possessions.
- The Property is a natural and inalienable right of man, is primarily the property of themselves, of the own bodies and of one's life.
It can not be granted or denied by any social system, whether democratic or authoritarian.
Property also means all that belongs to the person and that is not the result of an act of violence, but by the work of the person, the acquisition and transformation of the state of nature and with free interaction of individuals.
The Movimento Libertario, as political movement, is founded with the aim of reducing government to its lowest terms, in order to provide space for free interaction between individuals, or community consensus of individuals, who seek redress of their market needs .
Every member is said to have a moral duty to liberate the forces of civil society and free trade, eliminating any form of intervention in defense of individual liberties .
The Movimento Libertario Statute considers necessary for Italy:
- The return to full and effective individual sovereignty over their lives and their belongings, which belongs to the natural right to govern themselves through non-violent methods of coercion or by exercising the right to self-determination is that the sacred principles of resistance and opposition to any kind of tax;
- The rights of the individual nature of a right of ownership of their bodies and their belongings held lawfully, in fulfillment of the Rothbardian Non-aggression axiom:
"I define anarchist society as one where there is no legal possibility for coercive aggression against the person or property of any individual. Anarchists oppose the State because it has its very being in such aggression, namely, the expropriation of private property through taxation, the coercive exclusion of other providers of defense service from its territory, and all of the other depredations and coercions that are built upon these twin foci of invasions of individual rights." - Murray Newton Rothbard in Society and State
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Leonardo Facco. "Manifesto and Constitution of the Movimento Libertario", Treviglio, September 24, 2005
- ↑ The libertarian way to happiness L'Opinione, by Elisa Borghi. Retrieved on May 18, 2007. Interview to Marcello Mazzilli spokesman of the Movimento Libertario.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Leonardo Facco, Giorgio Fidenato, Marcello Mazzilli "Statute of the Movimento Libertario", Treviglio, September 2007
- ↑ Rothbard, Murray N., The Betrayal of the American Right (2007): 188
- ↑ Woodcock, George (1966). L'anarchia: storia delle idee e dei movimenti libertari. Milano: Feltrinelli Editore.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas - Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE-1939)], ed. Robert Graham; includes English translations of Joseph Dejacque’s 1857 letter to Proudhon.
- ↑ “De l'être-humain mâle et femelle–Lettre à P.J. Proudhon par Joseph Déjacque” (in French)
- ↑ Pelosse, Valentin (1972). Joseph Déjacque and the Neologism Libertarian
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Le Libertaire—all editions online
- ↑ Nettlau, Max (1996). A Short History of Anarchism. pp. 75–6, 162.
- ↑ Russell, Dean (May 1955). "Who Is A Libertarian?". The Freeman (The Foundation for Economic Education) 5 (5). http://www.thefreemanonline.org/columns/who-is-a-libertarian/. Retrieved March 6, 2010.
- ↑ Colin Ward, Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 62. "For a century, anarchists have used the word 'libertarian' as a synonym for 'anarchist', both as a noun and an adjective. The celebrated anarchist journal Le Libertaire was founded in 1896. However, much more recently the word has been appropriated by various American free-market philosophers..."
- Goodway, David. Anarchists Seed Beneath the Snow. Liverpool Press. 2006, p. 4
- MacDonald, Dwight & Wreszin, Michael. Interviews with Dwight Macdonald. University Press of Mississippi, 2003. p. 82
- Gay, Kathlyn. Encyclopedia of Political Anarchy. ABC-CLIO / University of Michigan, 2006, p. 126
- Woodcock, George. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements. Broadview Press, 2004. (Uses the terms interchangeably, such as on page 10)
- ↑ Antonio Masala, Il liberalismo di Bruno Leoni, Soveria Mannelli, Rubbettino, 2003.
- ↑ Bruno Leoni, Freedom and the Law, New York, Nostrand, 1961
- ↑ Carlo Lottieri, Bruno Leoni e l'ombra di Hayek. Libertà individuale, common law e Stato moderno, in Antonio Masala, a cura di, La teoria politica di Bruno Leoni, Soveria Mannelli, Rubbettino, 2005, p. 158.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 The legacy of the Austrian School l'Opinione, by William Longhi. Retrived on April 29, 2004.
- ↑ Definition of libertarianism in Merriam-Webster Dictionary
- ↑ Vallentyne, Peter (September 5, 2002). "Libertarianism". In Edward N. Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2009 ed.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University. Template:ISSN. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2009/entries/libertarianism/. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
- ↑ Professor Brian Martin, Eliminating state crime by abolishing the state; Murray Rothbard, Do You Hate the State?, The Libertarian Forum, Vol. 10, No. 7, July 1977; What Libertarianism Isn't; A Libertarian Cheat Sheet by Wilton D. Alston; Murrary Rothbard, Myth and Truth About Libertarianism.
- ↑ Sciabarra, Chris Mathew. Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism, Penn State Press, 2000, p. 193.
- ↑ Carlo Lottieri, Le ragioni del diritto. Libertà individuale e ordine giuridico nel pensiero di Bruno Leoni, Soveria Mannelli, Rubbettino, 2006.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 Norman P. Barry, Del liberalismo classico e del libertarianismo, ELiDiR , Roma, 1993
- ↑ Adams, Ian. 2002. Political Ideology Today. p. 135. Manchester University Press; Ostergaard, Geoffrey. 2003. Anarchism. In W. Outwaite (Ed.), The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought. p. 14. Blackwell Publishing
- ↑ Anarcho-capitalism against anarcho-national-communism Enclave n°15, 2001, by Guglielmo Piombini. Retrived on May 8, 2010. Archived from http://www.movimentolibertario.it/
- ↑ "Interview With Samuel Edward Konkin III". http://www.spaz.org/~dan/individualist-anarchist/software/konkin-interview.html.
- ↑ Rothbard, Murray N. (1988) "What's Wrong with Liberty Poll; or, How I Became a Libertarian", Liberty, July 1988, p.53
- ↑ libertarianism. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 July 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
- ↑ Murray Newton Rothbard Egalitarianism As A Revolt Against Nature And Other Essays: and other essays. Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2000. p.207
- ↑ Andrew Rutten. "Can Anarchy Save Us from Leviathan?" in The Independent Review vol. 3 nr. 4 p. 581. Scholar.Google.com, Independant.org "He claims that the only consistent liberal is an anarcho-liberal."
- ↑ "Murray N. Rothbard (1926–1995), American economist, historian, and individualist anarchist." Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America, Abridged Paperback Edition (1996), p. 282 "Although there are many honorable exceptions who still embrace the "socialist" label, most people who call themselves individualist anarchists today are followers of Murray Rothbard's Austrian economics, and have abandoned the labor theory of value." Carson, Kevin. Mutualist Political Economy, Preface.
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 Hoppe, Hans-Hermann (2001)"Anarcho-Capitalism: An Annotated Bibliography" Retrieved 23 May 2005
- ↑ Friedman, David D. The Machinery of Freedom. Chapter 42
- ↑ Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America, Abridged Paperback Edition (1996), p. 282
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 35.2 Leonardo Facco. "Movimento Libertario: About Us". June 6, 2009.
- ↑ Paolo Zanotto, Il Movimento Libertario americano dagli anni sessanta ad oggi: radici storico-dottrinali e discriminanti ideologico-politiche, Siena, Università degli Studi di Siena, 2001. Archived from http://www.unisi.it
- ↑ 37.0 37.1 37.2 The political theory of libertarian political, cultural and economic references of the Movimento Libertario
- ↑ 38.0 38.1 38.2 Crisis: When we explain how things were by Board of Directors of ML. Retrived on May 25, 2010.
- ↑ Konkin and the agorism by Samuel Edward Konkin III. Retrived on January 23, 2009. Introduction to the Agorist Class Theory. Archived from New Libertarian Notes #28, December 1973.
- ↑ Ayn Rand, the most widely read in times of bailout by Michael Shermer. Retrived on October 22, 2009. Archived from http://www.brunoleoni.it
- ↑ Ayn Rand "Diva" of the American tv? Retrived on December 29, 2009.
- ↑ Electoral Finance Act Il centro by Leonardo Facco. page 10. Retrieved on October 5, 2005. A comment by Leonardo Facco about proposals for fiscal federalism in Italy
- ↑ The free possession of weapons and Cesare Beccaria! by Leonardo Facco. Retrived on May 8, 2010.
- ↑ Starts the libertarian Tuscan clan by Leonardo Butini. Retrived on April 6, 2008.
- ↑ Filippo Mazzei, a true liberal by Retrived on June 28, 2008.
- ↑ Freedom of poor Europe! by Gianfranco Miglio. Retrived on May 29, 2010.
- ↑ Nicola Iannello, Il libertarianism: saggio bibliografico, in Etica & Politica, 2, 2003. Arcived from http://www.univ.trieste.it
- ↑ What and where L'Opinione. Article on free magazine I Fogli di Enclave. Retrieved on May 10, 2008.
- ↑ Classic liberals at the polls: what to do? L'Opinione, by Gustavo Cevolani. Retrieved on April 10, 2008.
- ↑ Movimento Libertario Clan libertarians Italian map of the presence of local clan supporters ML.
- ↑ Membership 2010!. We count on you! Retrived on December 31, 2009.
- ↑ Libertarians are not born, they become! by Board of Directors of the Movimento Libertario. Retrived on May 23, 2010.
- ↑ Leonardo Facco. "Political Program of the Movimento Libertario"
- ↑ 54.00 54.01 54.02 54.03 54.04 54.05 54.06 54.07 54.08 54.09 54.10 54.11 54.12 54.13 54.14 Leonardo Facco. " Appendix to Manifesto Libertario", 2005.
- ↑ Movimento Libertario Who is Ron Paul?. Summary sheet on Ron Paul and his political program in view of the U.S. presidential election of 2008 and why the Movimento Libertario shares his policy proposals.
- ↑ Transform the Europe in Swiss! by Giovanni Bonometti. Retrived on May 6, 2010.
- ↑ We are equal to the prisoners, measured time to see who are our children Il Giorno, by Magda Biglia, Retrieved on September 29, 2009.
- ↑ Stop subscription with a recommendation and 5.16 euro Il Giornale, by Felice Manti. Retrieved on September 27, 2009
- ↑ "I've put them in the bag: so they are surrendered" Il Giornale by Felice Manti. Retrieved on September 29, 2009. An interview to Leonardo Facco about the payment of public television fee
- ↑ Crack up boom by Francesco Carbone. Retrived on September 13, 2008. Archived from The Stages of Crack Up Boom on October 12, 2008.
- ↑ Crack Up Boom, monetary system I Fogli di Enclave n° 5, pages 2 and 3, by Francesco Carbone. Retrived on November 2008. Archived from http://www.movimentolibertario.it
- ↑ The Usual Game by Francesco Carbone. Retrived on August 27, 2009.
- ↑ Beware, young inexperienced speculators by Francesco Carbone. Retrived on July 29, 2008.
- ↑ Greece to the bankruptcy? by Mauro Meneghini. Retrived on November 9, 2009.
- ↑ Greece, in November 2009 we had said! by Mauro Meneghini. Retrived on February 11, 2010
- ↑ Italy, increase taxes on the enterprise in time of crisis! by Leonardo Facco. Retrived on March 10, 2010
- ↑ State operation from 24 billion euros: The opinion of the Movimento Libertario! by Leonardo Facco. Retrived on May 26, 2010.
- ↑ 24 billion, Italian financial speculation! by LucaF. Retrived on May 29 ,2010. Archived on May 28, 2010, from http://iovotopli.wordpress.com
- ↑ Radio registrations about Leonardo Facco on Radio Radicale broadcasts.
- ↑ Radio registrations about Giorgio Fidenato on Radio Radicale broadcasts.
- ↑ Interview with Mario Staderini: "No Longer with the PD Unable to Fight", L'Opinione by Dimitri Buffa. Retrived on November 19, 2009. Archived from http://www.radicali.it/
- ↑ Fidenato process, Italian Radicals protests Messaggero Veneto, page 2. Retrived on November 19, 2009. Archived from http://www.repubblica.it/
- ↑ Santarossa (Bonino List): Yes abolition of withholding tax! Retrived on January 28, 2010.
- ↑ Fidenato, the battle with the Inland Revenue continues with the process and the sit-in Messaggero Veneto, by Elena Del Giudice, page 4. Retrived on November 12, 2009.
- ↑ Video on the speech of Giorgio Fidenato in Congress of Italian Radicals held in Chianciano Terme in November 2009.
- ↑ GMO, Zamparutti: The act of civil disobedience on GMO research and helps agriculture Retrived on April 30, 2010.
- ↑ March of the corn: Radical support by Zamparutti MIP! Retrived on May 1, 2010.
- ↑ Assembly Reports Annex B Seat N°316, May 4, 2010. Italian parliamentary question of the Italian Radicals to the Italian minister of the Interior and to his colleague to the Italian Agriculture. Archived from http://www.camera.it
- ↑ GMO sowing, assault to Fidenato: question italian parliamentary member Zamparutti and colleagues! Retrived on May 5, 2010.
- ↑ The Battle of Fidenato, the arrogance of the advocate by Piercamillo Falasca. Retrived on November 16, 2009.
- ↑ The court refers in January, Fidenato initiative continues on withholding tax by Piercamillo Falasca. Retrived on November 19, 2009.
- ↑ GMOs: civil disobedience Fidenato, the good fruits of pragmatism and berries poisonous environmentalists by Piercamillo Falasca. Retrived on April 30, 2010.
- ↑ March 15 in Milan, staged a libertarian provocation against taxes Retrived on March 13, 2010
- ↑ Evolution of thought: Anarchists Analytics by William Longhi. Retrived on August 22, 2008.
- ↑ Interview with a left-libertarian Retrived on April 28, 2006. Interview with Luigi Corvaglia about the anarchism analytical
- ↑ Video about violent protests by environmentalists and no-global movements against Italian Federated Farmers
- ↑ GMO: FVG, opponents bursts within Federated Farmers Agi News Retrived on April 30, 2010.
- ↑ GMO maize, war breaks out of the seed Il Giornale, by Fausto Biloslavo. Retrived on May 1, 2010.
- ↑ TG5 tv service on Fidenato and the Movimento Libertario first sowing GMO in Italy Retrived on May 1, 2010. In the tv service the violent protests by environmentalists and no-global movements against Italian Federated Farmers.
- ↑ Pro-biotech farmers defy the decree by Stefano Bernardi. Retrived on May 1, 2010.
- ↑ Withholding tax Retrived on February 3, 2010.
- ↑ The Battle of Confcontribuenti for the abatement of taxes unfair l'Opinione by Stefano Magni. Retrived on March 11, 2010.
- ↑ 1 April: ruling on withholding tax Retrived on February 3, 2010.
- ↑ "We defend the money from the theft of state!" L'Opinione by Stefano Magni. Retrieved on December 1, 2007.
- ↑ Taxes? If no one likes to pay them a reason there will be... L'Occidentale, by Carlo Stagnaro. Retrieved on October 8, 2007. Archived by http://www.brunoleoni.it
- ↑ Taxes, there are those who want to boycott products Sardinian La Nuova, nuova Sardegna, by Alfredo Franchini, page 3. Retrieved on May 11, 2007. Archived by http://espresso.repubblica.it
- ↑ Taxes on luxury, addressed via Web La Nuova, nuova Sardegna. Retrieved on May 14, 2007. Archived by http://espresso.repubblica.it
- ↑ From the Tea Party to the tax revolt by Leonardo Facco. Retrived on May 30, 2010.
- ↑ We organize the first ItalianTea Party. Who joins? by drafting of Ultimathule.it. Retrived on February 9, 2010
- ↑ Prato, the first Italian Tea Party Retrived on April 15, 2010.
- ↑ The first Italian Tea Party on May 20 Retrived on May 5, 2010.
- ↑ Prato Tea Party: classical liberals, libertarians and fiscal conservatives for tax revolution by Saba Giulia Zecchi, Retrived on May 21, 2010.
- ↑ First Italian Tea Party, the video event by Raffaele Schettino Retrived on May 21, 2010. Archived from http://vimeo.com Video of the evening event on Prato, First Italian Tea Party on may 20, 2010.
- ↑ Tea Party, video service local television news network Retrived on May 24, 2010. Archived by http://www.movimentolibertario.it Video interviews with Marco Respinti (Columbia Institute) and Leonardo Facco (ML).
- ↑ The Tea Party landed at Italy: Less taxes, more freedom Libero, by Saba Giulia Zecchi. Retrived on May 21, 2010. Archived from http://www.ultimathule.it.
- ↑ Tea Party Rome: distribution of forms to ask the employer to pay gross payroll by Tea Party Rome. Retrived on June 6, 2010.
- ↑ "Selling our vote" Iniziative of the Movimento Libertario in supports of Giorgio Fidenato against withholding tax during regional elections in Italy of 2010. Retrieved on January 20, 2010.
- ↑ Regional 2010, Contract of Sale of Voting! Copy of the module for the political supports in favour to Giorgio Fidenato in the battle against withholding tax. Retrieved on February 1, 2010.
- ↑ 6(+1) Campania candidates with Giorgio Fidenato!. Retrived on February 9, 2010
- ↑ Cappato also endorses the contract of sale vote!. Retrived on February 10, 2010
- ↑ Puglia adhesion to the contract of assignment of the vote Retrived on February 11, 2010
- ↑ Assignment contract vote, another membership to Naples! by Domenico Letizia. Retrived on February 12, 2010.
- ↑ Assignment of contract vote, another subscription from Calabria! Retrived on February 13, 2010.
- ↑ Sell our vote, another membership from Tuscany! Retrived on February 14, 2010.
- ↑ Domenico Letizia between candidates Bonino-Pannella List to the Campania Region. Retrived on February 16, 2010
- ↑ Sell our vote, Radicals Association "Enzo Tortora" joins Retrived on February 17, 2010
- ↑ First seminar Vivien Kellems Retrived on March 11, 2010.
- ↑ On the Kellems case, see Vivien Kellems, Toil, Taxes and Trouble (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1952)
- ↑ Murray Newton Rothbard, For a New Liberty. The Libertarian Manifesto., pag. 86, (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1973). Archived from http://mises.org/
- ↑ Enrolment at the first seminar Vivien Kellems Retrived on March 11, 2010
- ↑ Seminar Vivien Kellems, this is the program! Retrived on June 8, 2010.
- ↑ The Masaniello of "impossible" freedom Il Secolo d'Italia, by Daniele Priori. Retrived on February 17, 2010. Archived from http://www.movimentolibertario.it/
- ↑ Montesano, the libertarian I fogli di Enclave n°11 by Franco Possenti, page 1,4. Retrived on February 2010. Archived from http://www.movimentolibertario.it/
- ↑ And Montesano sings the libertarians Rap! Il Secolo d'Italia by Daniele Priori. Retrived on October 10, 2009. Archived from http://www.movimentolibertario.it/
- ↑ And Montesano sings the libertarians Rap! Il Secolo d'Italia by Daniele Priori, page 16. Retrived on November 4, 2009. Archived from http://www.nereovilla.it
- Official Italian website of the Movimento Libertario
- YouTube Channel of the ML
- ML Channel on Justin.tv Web Television channel of the ML for conferences, public activities and debates.
- Leonardo Facco Editore & Movimento Libertario shop site of the publishing house and shop of the Movimento Libertario