Libertarian Movement (Italy)

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Movimento Libertario
Leader Leonardo Facco
Coordinator Giorgio Fidenato
Founded September 24, 2005 (launched as cultural movement)
September 2007 (founded as political movement-party) (September 24, 2005 (launched as cultural movement)
September 2007 (founded as political movement-party)
Headquarters Pordenone
Newspaper Enclave, I Fogli di Enclave
Ideology agorism, anarcho-capitalism, anti-federalism, anti-statism, classical liberalism, euroscepticism, free market, Individualism, laissez-faire, liberism, libertarianism, minarchism, non-interventionism, non-violence, non-voting, objectivism, paleo-libertarianism, voluntaryism
International affiliation Interlibertarians
European affiliation None
Official colors Yellow or gold
Politics of Italy
Political parties

The terms Libertarian Movement (Movimento Libertario in Italian, acronym ML) are used here to refer to a political party and a cultural movement organisation based in Italy characterized by a libertarianism cultural and political platform: minimal regulation of Italian society, liberism of the markets, strong defense of natural rights of liberty and property, non-interventionism in foreign policy, and laissez-faire freedom of trade and travel to all foreign countries.



The Movimento Libertario was originally only an Italian cultural association for the dissemination of libertarianism.

As a cultural association, the Movimento Libertario began on September 24, 2005, in Treviglio with the writing of the "Manifesto and Constitution of the Movimento Libertario" by Leonardo Facco[1].

The Movimento Libertario became also an Italian political subject when it is officially founded in September 2007 by Leonardo Facco, Giorgio Fidenato and Marcello Mazzilli[2], in order to defend life, liberty and property of each individual within a strong liberist system of free market, against any kind of aggression and/or coercion.[3]

The Association has its registered office in the Municipality of Pordenone[3].


The flag "yellow/black" (or "black and gold") is used by anarcho-capitalists and other market anarchists. The yellow symbolizes gold, a commodity, often used in a commodity of exchange often used in marketplaces unrestricted by state intervention, the right half in black is for anarchy. The flag was first used in public in Colorado in 1963 at an event organised by Robert LeFevre at Rampart College.[4]

The Movimento Libertario has as its symbol a round disk with a yellow-gold background in reference to the gold standard and also to its membership in the anarcho-capitalist movement.

The symbol is part of the assets of the Association[3].

Inside the top are the words in Italian (in black color) "Proprietà" and "Libertà", and are references to natural rights believed essential by libertarians.

In the center of the disk, the symbol of the movement, is a stylized image of a black crossbow.

The weapon is an homage to nearby Switzerland and in particular to legendary William Tell, as a symbol of fiscal rebellion for federalist political autonomy and independence of people.

Below the image appears the written "Movimento Libertario"; the terms are used in reference to political entity but also to define the nature of individual human action (Movimento) and to define, in broad sense, those theories which give primacy to individual choice before the claims of any political power (Libertario).

The question on the term Libertario for the Italian Libertarianism

The terms movimento libertario (libertarian movement in English) in Italian language has a dual meanings.

Historically, first generally refers to the Italian anarchism and European anarchist movements (libertarism) with a marxian and social anarchist ispirations.[5]

The anarchist socialist tradition use the term libertario to describe themselves and their ideas since 1857.

The French anarchist communist Joseph Déjacque employed the term libertario in a political sense in an open letter criticizing Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.[6][7]

Déjacque said Proudhon was "libéral et non LIBERTAIRE", that is, the neologism was coined specifically as a distinction from the classical liberalism that Proudhon advocated in relation to economic exchange, in contrast to the more libertarian communist approach advocated by Déjacque.[6][8]

From 1858 until 1861 Déjacque published in New York a journal called Le Libertaire: Journal du Mouvement Social.[9][10]

Since the 1890s the term "libertarianism" has often been used as a synonym for left wing anarchism or libertarian socialism,[9] and exclusively so until the 1950s in the United States.[11][12][13]

In the '60s of XX century, Italian jurist and philosophy classic liberal, Bruno Leoni[14], introduced in Italy, American libertarianism concepts of natural right and ideology of private property (propertarianism) based on theorizations of Murray Newton Rothbard book Man, Economy, and State.

In 1961, Leoni wrote his book Freedom and the Law[15] in English, result of lectures in California in 1958.

In this work he points out the importance of the historical law (Roman jus civile and English Common law) and he is very critical towards modern legislation and the idea that law can be the simple outcome of a political decision.

Reflections on the law of Leoni, including criticism of Hans Kelsen, help to better understand the extraordinary potential of the Austrian School of Social Sciences, which originated with Carl Menger, Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich von Hayek[16] and Murray N. Rothbard.[17]

Using the juridical methodological individualism, the analysis of institutions and the evolutionary origin of subjective value theory, Leoni has shown that not only the economy but the entire reflection on society can benefit greatly from the basic teachings of the Austrian school.

Leoni did not introduced the term libertarianism in Italy but only the concepts of this political theory that advocates the maximization of individual liberty in thought and action[18][19] and the minimization or even abolition of the state.[20][21]

So these concepts strongly anti-state and against monopolism (see especially the essay Mito e realtà dei monopoli, 1965), have been interpreted by many Italians observers and intellectuals critics as a subspecies of Italian anarchism (libertarism).[22]

The circle-A symbol with dollar sign is an anarcho-capitalist symbol representing anarchism and free market capitalism. This is the latest creation (2010) in anarcho-capitalist symbolism.

In 1978 the French economist Henri Lepage with his book Demain le Capitalisme (Capitalism Tomorrow) based on an overview of the new libertarian thinkers, introduced in Europe the term libertarianism with the obvious intention to avoid misunderstandings; but after a decade of use of the Italian term libertario in reference to the concepts and principles of libertarianism, the libertarian ideas became famous under the name of libertarism.

So the meaning of the term libertario coexists in Italy with the traditional collectivist anarchism but also with the Anglo-Saxon meaning of libertarianism free market philosophy.

Italians libertarians of the Movimento Libertario use the Italian anarchic term libertario not to refer to European ideas and methods of traditional anarchism, but to refer to the concepts of principles of market liberalism.

They want also to remark and increase the cultural distance from Italian and European conception of liberalism, that in the XX century appeared as democratic liberalism forms of statism.

Italians libertarians of the ML are often prefer to define themselves as libertarians libertari but with adjective connotative of anarcho-capitalists, to distinguish themselves as pro-market supporters from the libertarians socialists or the traditionals anarchists.

It is prefers to use in the Italian anarchist context the indicative categories of anarcho-capitalism (as right anarchism) and anarcho-communist (as left anarchism) to indicate and clearly distinguish respectively the different anarchist school of thought with Rothbardian inspiration on market and property (like the ML) from the communist inspired groups.

Difference on concept of anarchy in the libertarian anarcho-capitalism from the others forms of anarchism

Anarcho-capitalism uses the following terms in ways that may differ from common usage or various anarchist movements.

  • Anarchism: any philosophy that opposes all forms of initiatory coercion (includes opposition to the State)
  • Contract: a voluntary binding agreement between persons
  • Coercion: physical force or threat of such against persons or property
  • Capitalism: economic system where the means of production are privately owned, and where investments, production, distribution, income, and prices are determined through the operation of a free market rather than by government
  • Free market: a market where all decisions regarding transfer of money, goods (including capital goods), and services are voluntary
  • Fraud: inducing one to part with something of value through the use of dishonesty
  • State: an organization that taxes and engages in regularized and institutionalized aggressive coercion
  • Voluntary: any action not influenced by coercion or fraud perpetrated by any human agency

The American libertarianism, whether in the anarcho-capitalist form that in its various meanings attributable, claims its presence in the vision of anarchism, although this comes especially from classical liberalism carried to its extreme and radical considerations.[23]

The anarchism in the anarcho-capitalism philosophy is a nonviolent form, that derives to the purpose of eliminate the State to realize a free market anarchism as voluntary society, it is not an end in itself unlike of the European anarchism traditional array, but rather the natural consequence of opposition to the statism.

Anarcho-capitalism is an individualist anarchism[24] political philosophy that advocates the elimination of the Sovereign state and the elevation of the sovereign individual in a free market.

Traditional and collectivists Italian anarchists, they judge the ML as not a real anarchist movement, but they think that rather is a ploy of the classic liberal elite and middle class to increase social inequality.

They also consider that the term libertario or at least inappropriate for the nature of the movement within the Italian historical context.[23].

The members of the Movimento Libertario rejects the manipolation of their identity and image by traditional and collectivist anarchists, and claim for themselves the correctness of the use of the definition of Italian anarchist libertarian (libertari), stressing their opposition to the use of bombs and violence by the insurrectionary anarchism.

The criticism to the anarcho-collectivism about the future perspective of society

If the anarchism considers also the anarcho-capitalism as movement that tend to want to keep the rules without state, in turn the anarcho-capitalism considers acceptable only the rules that derives from natural rights.

The anarcho-capitalism libertarian criticizes the anarchism and collectivist anarchism, because they tends to focus without consistency on the objectives anti-statists, they both believe that a spontaneous order based on market competition and exchange is impossible.[25]

According to the anarchocapitalist, the traditional anarchism tends only to develop itself as an ultimate violent goal, they interpret the concept of anarchy as synonymous of anomie without rules, scaring the people with the violence.

The term anarcho-capitalism was most likely coined in 1968 by Jarrett Wollstein and revived by economist Murray Rothbard.[26][27] Rothbard used the term anarcho-capitalism to distinguish his philosophy from anarchism that opposes private property,[28] as well as to distinguish it from other forms of individualist anarchism.[29] Other terms sometimes used for this philosophy, though not necessarily outside anarcho-capitalist circles, include:

  • anti-state capitalism
  • anti-state marketism
  • anarcho-liberalism[30]
  • capitalist anarchism
  • market anarchism
  • free market anarchism
  • individualist anarchism[31]
  • natural order[32]
  • ordered anarchy[32]
  • polycentric law
  • the private-law society[32]
  • private-property anarchy[32]
  • pure capitalism
  • radical capitalism[32]
  • stateless capitalism
  • stateless society
  • stateless liberalism
  • voluntaryism

Traditional social anarchists are incapable of understanding the natural dynamics of free market economy choice and the difference with the corporative state economy, the anarcho-communism don't defend the freedom of choice through the abolition of property with the individual subordination to the community.

The Movimento Libertario believes that only the anarcho-capitalist option, based on private property and respect for natural rights, is a prerequisited for a future peaceful free-market society without a state in Italy.

The functions now performed by the Welfare State should return to free associations, community and voluntary philanthropic spirit.

In an anarcho-capitalist society, law enforcement, courts, and all other security services would be provided by voluntarily-funded competitors such as private defense agencies rather than through taxation, and money would be privately and competitively provided in an open market.

According to anarcho-capitalists, personal and economic activities would be regulated by the natural laws of the market and through private law rather than through politics.

Promoting a common framework of action and shared principles, does not mean that reality to must to be necessarily only a utilitarian development anarcho-capitalist model strictly, or necessarily a teleological-purposive as an anarcho-capitalist identity in terms of principal presence.

It is possible that within the general context of acceptance of property rights, free trade and non-aggression axiom between individuals, can be formed on the territory other future models related to different forms of social-economic libertarian perspectives in peaceful competition with each others.[33]

Although it is highly doubtful that these future models of alternative development they can lead wealth and prosperity if will miss the awareness of an underlying future recognition about the respect of principles between people of enclaves.

Anarcho-capitalist libertarians believe that the only just, and/or most economically-beneficial, way to acquire property is through voluntary trade, gift, or labor-based original appropriation, rather than through aggression or fraud.[34]

The Movimento Libertario want to match the prospective of context anarcho-capitalist the possible realizations of similar alternative developments.

Cultural diffusion

Movimento Libertario, as cultural association intends to be an Italian promoter of the spread of classical liberalism and libertarian vision in policy, free market and economic liberalism in economy.[35].

The motto is: "Everyone is free to do what he thinks is right for himself, without attacking anyone, and without attacking the property rights of others".

The movement's members believe that policy is especially spread of freedom as economic freedom culture: meetings, debates, on the web, and with conferences and publications [1]


Movimento Libertario is politically inspired by the classical liberalism of John Locke and the Founding Fathers of the United States conjugated to nineteenth-century American individualist anarchist strand of Benjamin Tucker, Henry David Thoreau and Lysander Spooner.[36][37]

In economy it is inspired on lessons of the Austrian school and in particular to the theoric formulation of the philosopher and economist libertarian anarcho-capitalist Murray N. Rothbard.[38][17][37]

The actions in favor of tax resistance, free entrepreneurship and political non-voting also recall the agorist reflections by Samuel Edward Konkin III[39] although the Movimento Libertario not officially identify itself in programmatic positions and spectrum of the American left-libertarians.

Movimento Libertario also includes some aspects from the American model of liberty theorized by Robert Nozick (minarchism) and the Objectivism phylosophy described in novels by Ayn Rand.[37][40][41]

The Movimento Libertario refers to freedom of association of the anarchic federalism, anarcho-capitalist free market society and to the Jeffersonian limited government of classical liberalism.

The term "federalism" as it is used by the Movimento Libertario, in a sense to be in favor of a political of decentralization and for a real local fiscality against the centralism of the national Italian State[42].

It is not used to mean the increase of central power.

The Movimento Libertario is an anti-federalist organization about the Europe, it is against the federal European Union government, preferring the voluntary accession and the unanimity of a Confederation.

Historians Italian thinkers of reference for the Movimento Libertario in economy and policy include Ferdinando Galiani, Cesare Beccaria[43], Paolo Balsamo, Filippo Mazzei[44][45], Emerico Amari, Francesco Ferrara, Giuseppe Todde, Giovanni Pinna Ferrà, Tullio Martello, Carlo Cattaneo, Edoardo Giretti, Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, Luigi Einaudi, Bruno Leoni, Gianfranco Miglio[46] and Sergio Ricossa.


Leonardo Facco, thanks to the encounter with the most important Italian libertarian thinkers (Carlo Lottieri, Alberto Mingardi, Carlo Stagnaro, Guglielmo Piombini, Nicola Iannello)[47] founded in 1996 in Treviglio the Leonardo Facco Editore an independent publishing house.

It works to spread the concepts about the defense of liberty, property and people's lives that they are threatened daily by the actions of states, governments and public authorities.

The published books dealing history, sociology, political science and issues related the ecology of the market.

The Movimento Libertario through to the Leonardo Facco Editore periodically publish two magazines: I Fogli di Enclave and the magazine Enclave which give space to various political issues, cultural, social and economic libertarians Italian and international.[17].

I Fogli di Enclave[48] is a free bimonthly publication, while the magazine Enclave is a quarterly magazine founded in March 1998, available by subscription.

The Movimento Libertario is actively working through the magazine Enclave with Italian free market members of Bruno Leoni Institute [1][17]: Alberto Mingardi (co-editor), Carlo Stagnaro (co-director) and Carlo Lottieri (Scientific Committee).

In Scientific Committee of Enclave magazine belong also: Walter Block, David D. Friedman, Raimondo Cubeddu, Romano Bracalini, Hans Hermann Hoppe, John Hospers, Antonio Martino, Nicola Jannello, David B. Kopel, Pierre Lemieux, Tibor R. Machan, Jan Narveson, Wendy McElroy, Guglielmo Piombini, Ralph Raico, Alberto Pasolini Zanelli, Sergio Ricossa, Robert Sirico, Thomas S. Szasz, Alessandro Vitale.

The Movimento Libertario collaborates actively with the members of Swiss Liberist Party of Canton Ticino and their Association (ALT), in cultural and economic free market iniziatives (conferences and publications like I Fogli di Enclave) between libertarians subjects in Italy and Canton Ticino.

In January 2010, Leonardo Facco, announced the intention to delegate ownership of his publishing company to the Movimento Libertario, in order to promote the continuity in the future of the activities of the movement by ensuring private self-financing through the sale of books and content published.


The Nolan Chart, with the traditional left-right political spectrum, as seen by David Nolan, on the dashed diagonal

Respecting the historical definition of libertarian, unlike to the Libertarian Party (United States), the Movimento Libertario want bring in Italy the same contents of others libertarians parties and movements in the world but with the agorist practice of the non-voting[49], thus not directly participating in political Italian elections with the symbol of the Movimento Libertario [1][3].

Although in fact the Movimento Libertario is an officially registered Italian political party, as anti-statist movement disclaims the State legality and its political elections.

As a formal Italian political party it may decide to participate in the Italian political competition (at different levels) supporting from the outside its candidates through civic lists, or support the claims of parties close to its cultural vision in order to make its voice and disseminate ideas [3].

The Movimento Libertario is not classifiable in the political-ideologic traditions of the twentieth century presents in Italy.

Like other libertarians entities in the world, the subject respects the political spectrum of Nolan Chart.

One of its slogans said: "Neither right nor left, nor centrist. Simply free is better".

Spectrum internal libertarianism

The Movimento Libertario is formally neutral as libertarian ideology, with an anarcho-capitalist vision, a voluntaryist organization and an agorist practices as characteristics.

Unlike the United States, in Italy and in the Movimento Libertario there are not internal controversies among the identity of libertarian term between libertarians members or a clear distinction between the right libertarian (paleolibertarian and libertarian conservatives) members and left libertarians (the latter understood in their sense of American left libertarians Rothbardian like agorist, panarchist not to the European libertarian socialists) because the libertarian schools no presents so significant differences in their common anti-state vision.

Moreover, these libertarian schools are not rooted in Italy if not with some representative members in the Movimento Libertario.

The Movimento Libertario considers crucial to encourage what is common and unites all the various libertarian orientations, seeking to promote the protection of private property, free market and the natural law through actions and non-violent and peaceful means.

Structure and membership

The bodies of internal administration include the Managing Director, Board of Directors (B.o. D.), Assembly of Members (Meeting of Shareholders), Groups of Territorial Association (clans)[50], Board of Auditors, and the Enclave of Essays.

The Statute of the Movimento Libertario[3] describes and regulates all bodies of internal administration and their function.

Leonardo Facco co-founder of the Association, represents (in according to the statute and to the internal democracy of members of Association) the role of Managing Director of the Movimento Libertario.

He represents the Movimento Libertario in their official activity.

The Movimento Libertario is organized by a system of free participation of shareholders, registered members, and sympathizers on the Italian territory.[51][52]

Any adult who registers and pays a participation fee becomes a shareholder member of the movement and therefore acquired the right to vote and actively participate to the meetings of internal bodies.

Minors, even if authorized by a single parent, may be enrolled only as members sympathizers with no rights to vote.


Movimento Libertario in its founding act declares and acknowledges libertarian principles as internals to its Statute[3]:

  • The Freedom, understood as the absence of constraint is a natural right of the individual, which nobody (private or public organization) must threaten;
  • The Government, in its various variants, forces people to obey blindly and accept legislation invasive and oppressive monopoly;
  • Everyone has the right to seek their own happiness and that of his loved ones, taking responsibility for their actions;
  • Each individual is entitled organize in freedom themselves to protect their lives and their belongings, particularly given the enormous difficulties posed by the power of politicians at all levels;
  • The need to eliminate and reduce the state, politicians and bureaucracies in the everyday life, increasingly recognizing the dignity of all people working really, producing their own resources and possessions.
  • The Property is a natural and inalienable right of man, is primarily the property of themselves, of the own bodies and of one's life.

It can not be granted or denied by any social system, whether democratic or authoritarian.

Property also means all that belongs to the person and that is not the result of an act of violence, but by the work of the person, the acquisition and transformation of the state of nature and with free interaction of individuals[1].


The Movimento Libertario, as political movement, is founded with the aim of reducing government to its lowest terms, in order to provide space for free interaction between individuals, or community consensus of individuals, who seek redress of their market needs [1][35].

Every member is said to have a moral duty to liberate the forces of civil society and free trade, eliminating any form of intervention in defense of individual liberties [53].

The Movimento Libertario Statute[3] considers necessary for Italy:

  • The return to full and effective individual sovereignty over their lives and their belongings, which belongs to the natural right to govern themselves through non-violent methods of coercion or by exercising the right to self-determination is that the sacred principles of resistance and opposition to any kind of tax;
  • The rights of the individual nature of a right of ownership of their bodies and their belongings held lawfully, in fulfillment of the Rothbardian Non-aggression axiom:
"I define anarchist society as one where there is no legal possibility for coercive aggression against the person or property of any individual. Anarchists oppose the State because it has its very being in such aggression, namely, the expropriation of private property through taxation, the coercive exclusion of other providers of defense service from its territory, and all of the other depredations and coercions that are built upon these twin foci of invasions of individual rights." - Murray Newton Rothbard in Society and State
As is registered in its name, the Movimento Libertario wants promote in the Italian civil society the natural rights to life, liberty, property and the pursuit of happiness. Each share of the Movimento, which would achieve the above purposes, is based on the principle of non-violence: "no one can attack the person and the property of others"[1].

Political positions


Supports the abolition of taxation in all forms and it is against regulation of free trade, including tariffs, price controls, coercive insurance, and production quotas.

An intermediate target on which to engage is the institutionalization of a flat tax whose rate is as low as possible (for example 22%) and one or more, no-tax area.[54]

The Movimento Libertario is an Eurosceptic movement, critical of the Euro and the presence of a European common economic monetary policy represented and direct by the European Central Bank and the European Commission.[54]

It is in favor of a return to the gold standard and to a free banking system.[54]

Does not recognize the legality and legitimacy of the WTO, IMF, World Bank because they are statist organizations contrary to the principles of non-interference of governments in a free market economy.

The Movimento Libertario is in favour of free market capitalism, supports market liberalization and deregulation, it also supports privatization of State economy sector (state monopoly capitalism).

It is against statism and protectionism, rejects public and private mixed economies, opposed to marxian communism, fascist economic planning (corporativism) and keynesians socialists interventions in economy by the State (state capitalism) and politics.

Believes work can not be regarded either as a right nor a duty, but only as a free choice of the individual, and as such, the work should not be subject to collective agreements or limited by rules.

The collective agreement is deemed unconstitutional.[54]

It is in favor of the abolition of professional orders of state; is not contrary to private professional orders and supports their spontaneous formation, but feel the problem arises from the institutionalization of professional orders of state and the choice of these same associations to act as a single party monopoly.

Accession to the orders should not be imposed by law.[54]

Supports the abolition of all business licenses; no price controls, balances, and no limitation in the initiation of new activities (such as limitations on the area or otherwise) may be exercised by the state and its territorial authorities.[1]

The Movimento Libertario recognizes the need for an emphasis on clarity of information to the public on the free choice of consumers.[54]

Foreign policy

The vision of the Movimento Libertario is an international foreign policy of nonintervention and non-violence like proposed by candidate for President of the United States in 2008, libertarian-republican Congressman Ron Paul[55].

The movement is against any increase in military spending or strengthening of armaments by the Italian State, even within the NATO, considered a military structure no longer necessary, and outside the context of the original defensive operations; it is against any forms of war, violent conflict or international interventions on foreign soil by Italian troops in line with the Rothbardian axiom of nonaggression [1][54];

The legality and legitimacy of the United Nations is questioned because this international organisation is contrary to the principle of a world without the presence of the State.

The European Union is considered a bureaucratic organization for the European Big Government, with the aim to reduce the free economy and the organization of the territory through central control.

The Lisbon Treaty adoption is not supported but the movement is not theoretically against the possible realization of a referendum for the free choice of Italians.

The movement supports individual and territorial separatism and indipendentism, the right of free self-determination of peoples and recognizing areas (enclave) within a framework of regional political autonomy within a loose opening of trade between regions [54].

Switzerland is considered an important model of confederative system both for the good economy development that for balanced policy organization of the territory.[56]


The Movimento Libertario favors the reduction of telephone tapping and registration requirement for the list of suspects intercepted, localization of security forces (more power to the municipal police as opposed to a reduction of the national police), supports experiments in privatization of police (without internal interferences of any Italian political party) in small towns, the strengthening the function of the justice of the peace and introduction of arbitration, and recognition and guarantee of the right to possess arms in defense of private property and life of each individual[54]

Civil Rights

Movimento Libertario favors the freedom of choice of individuals within the natural rights of property (negative rights) and liberty (negative liberty) a is to agree to recognize responsibility for personal actions and not to delegate to others their own choices, or do so in an informed way.[1][54]

The movement supports a depenalization of light drugs (such as cannabis); supports the individual right to prostitution and abortion.[54]

The movement is contrary to any form of restriction of freedom, control or censorship by the state, the imposition of coercive state abortion, the financing of every kind of marriage by the state[57], and the prohibition of drugs, alcohol and smoking [54].


The Movimento Libertario is favorable to the homeschooling and to freedom of teaching and choice.


The Movimento Libertario is favorable to the creation of a pattern of private health care.

This is to avoid the justification for state control over private behavior motivated by the fact that the state spends money on health [54].


Movimento Libertario favors the free cultivation and the free marketing of seeds and GMO foods and no limits to GMOs in Italy, consumer freedom to choose their own products[54], and freedom of private scientific research as long as it respect the natural human rights and it does not use public money.

Movimento Libertario does not support the theory of global warming.


The Movimento Libertario favors the right to freedom of speech and freedom of the networks and media [54].

The movement is against public funding of political parties, newspapers and denominational schools, and Italian public television paid for through taxes[58][59].

Economic Crisis

Movimento Libertario following the principles and lessons of the Austrian school [60][61] and economic analysis on the subprime mortgage by Peter Schiff[62] was able to predict in advance the economic crisis of 2008 [63], the economic difficulties of Greece [64][65] and Italy in 2010.

The Movimento Libertario collaborates and participates in various projects with the Italian Cultural Association of Austrian economics (Us Equity and Macro Lab) and its founder Francesco Carbone.

Since May 2009, the Movimento Libertario sent to various Italian politicians and political forces a paper on the Italian and international economic situation from the perspective of the Austrian School.[38]

In this paper, the Movimento Libertario called on the Italian policy in a drastic reduction of its role in the economy.

The reduction of State hasn't been pursued through a drastic spending cuts and taxes, particularly those that impede the savings and the investments.

The reduction of taxation and public spending would lead automatically to a shifting of social relationship between savings, investment and consumption towards the former, thereby reducing greatly the time to return to a prosperous economy.

During depression each reduction of taxes or any interference that impedes the free market will stimulate healthy economic activity, conversely, any increase in taxes or other measures to further depress the economy.

The Movimento Libertario believes that different measures were took, were differents from what stated above [66][67][68], so the situation of crisis and difficulties for Italy they will continue indefinitely.

Relationship to major parties

For its anti-statist positions on taxes, in favor of free choice of individuals and more free market with less government, for the strong criticizing to Italian political and to its major protagonists, the Movimento Libertario and its members are severely criticized by many Italian politicians parties.

Both main centre-right and centre-left parties and related Italian coalitions, criticize the ML proposing about the economic cuts of taxes, the reduction of State presence in the economy [38] and the withdrawal of Italian troops from the international war scenarios.

The Italian centre-right coalition (The People of Freedom and the Northern League) criticizing the ML in particular for the individual choice and the anti-prohibitionism battle in the civil rights context by this; in economy criticizing the Movimento Libertario for a request of a new reform of Italian private pension provision in capitalist sense, for the abolition of Italian provinces and a reduction of national and local State costs by this.

The Movimento Libertario considers these parties like a populist and social conservative parties against individual liberties and economic territorial autonomy.

The Italian centre-left coalition (Democratic Party and Italy of Values) criticizing the ML for the private healthcare purpose, the abolition of Italian Welfare State, the withholding tax and the abolition of wiretaps by the judiciary.

The Movimento Libertario considers these parties like a cripto-communist and justicialist parties.

On the Union of the Centre, the Movimento Libertario considers it a political opportunist Party, with a prohibitionist logic based on nationalist and statism (including religious catholic fundamentalism) in economics and individual rights.

Relationship with other liberal italians intellectual associations and political party

Among the political groups outside the ML there is the case of the Italian Radicals members of the Italian Radical Party that refer to certain principles of left libertarianism, which although part of the coalition of centre-left with Democratic Party, they offer a social liberal view favorable to free market and private property, together with a vision of the left liberalism in particular as regards the vision of civil rights and the secular State.

The Italian Radicals called sometimes themselves as "socialists", but they are not properly defined within a European vision of libertarianism of the left (radical socialism) because they are members of the ELDR group in the European Parliament and their economic battles are in favor of free markets and for an American reform of Italian institutions.

Their vision is similar to the American left libertarians for their pacifism and nonviolence with some elements of libertarian socialism although historically they tend to refer to Italian radical risorgimental and to the left reformist French models.

Many left-wing Italian parties refuse to recognize the Italian Radicals status of subject to left party although their State vision is very similar to the American "liberals" in many contexts.

Very often, the Italian Radicals are politically out of the coalitions as a third party.

Although the Movimento Libertario differ on many points from the Italian Radicals, it maintains close relations with them and their media (like Radio Radicale [69][70]) in particular as regards the battle against the withholding tax.

Giorgio Fidenato and the Movimento Libertario, has received support by the Italian Radicals of Marco Pannella by secretary, Mario Staderini[71][72][73] and others association in the battle over the withholding tax.[74]

Giorgio Fidenato, as representative of the Movimento Libertario, was invited to discuss his case at the national conference of the Italian Radicals in Chianciano Terme (in Province of Siena) in November 2009.[75]

On April 30, 2010, Elisabetta Zamparutti Italian Radical member of Italian Parliament in Environment Committee turned her solidarity to the Movimento Libertario, Federated Farmers and Giorgio Fidenato, claiming their action of nonviolent civil disobedience for the sown of GMO maize, arguing the need to open Italy to the cultivation of GMOs.[76][77]

On May 4, 2010, Italian Radicals parliamentaries Elisabetta Zamparutti, Marco Beltrandi, Rita Bernardini, Maria Antonietta Farina Coscioni, Matteo Mecacci e Maurizio Turco (Lista Emma Bonino in the Italian Democratic Party have deposited (and publishing the following day) a parliamentary question written to Italian Minister of the Interior, Roberto Maroni and to the new Italian Minister of Agriculture, Giancarlo Galan to know what they are going to do on possible new attacks in the future headquarters of Italian Federated Farmers and on the issue of GMOs.

In the Italian Radicals parliamentary questions there are refers threats to person and property that Giorgio Fidenato and Italian Federated Farmers received by environmentalists, anti-globalization and communist movements.[78][79]

Parliamentary questions mentions also that the Italian government still does not recognize to Giorgio Fidenato, the Italian Federated Farmers, the Movimento Libertario and Futuragra the right to sown GMO maize, as determined by decision of the Italian Council of State and European Community Directive.

Among the political groups outside the ML there is also the case of the association Libertiamo that refer to certain principles of liberalism.

The members comes from Liberal Reformers party and from historical factions of classical liberals, fiscal conservatives and liberal-conservatives of Forza Italia party and some finiano member of National Alliance.

Libertiamo is a minor internal cultural faction of centre-right party The People of Freedom, that is favorable to free market vision with freedom choice about bioethical themes like abortion and stem cells research and free-market environmentalist policy.

Libertiamo although the name that recall libertarian brand, is not a libertarian faction but a liberal-conservatives and liberal-democratic think tank very close with Gianfranco Fini and his political positions.

The Movimento Libertario don't have a particular relations with this association, although it still has given its formal support against the withholding tax[80][81], supporting Giorgio Fidenato and the right to sow GMO maize.[82] and mentions some initiatives of the ML on its website.[83].

Media:Example.ogg==== The case of the "analytical anarchists"====

Outside the Movimento Libertario, there are some Italians individual anarchist and former libertarians (like Luigi Corvaglia, Ricccardo La Conca, Fabio Massimo Nicosia) called "analytical anarchists" that have not joined in the ML, preferring a vision of theoretical synthesis between Rothbardian libertarianism and traditional anarchism or libertarian socialism.[84]

In the "analytical anarchist" group (that is not a political party but only a cultural movement), the coherent and rigorous vision of the Movimento Libertario about the defense of market ideas in all its aspects, is often interpreted and criticized as a tendency to moral conservatism (without any form of ethical relativism).[85]

If this is true as regards the theoretical level of the libertarian principles on the natural rights of property and about the free market, it is false as regards the freedom of individual choice (for himself in the context of respect of the others individuals).

Violence suffered

In April 2010, the Movimento Libertario and its members (in particular Giorgio Fidenato and Leonardo Facco) were subjected to threats and acts of violent vandalism in its headquarters by Italian Anti-globalization movement and Italian left wing anti-capitalist and environmentalist groups about the question of GMO maize.[86][87][88][89][90]


Against taxes

From March 2010, the Movimento Libertario collaborates and participates actively in the initiative offered by Confcontribuenti, a Confederation of Italian taxpayers.

Confcontribuenti supports the Movimento Libertario and Giorgio Fidenato in his battle against withholding tax.[91] [92][93]

The Movimento Libertario wants to create a critical mass of owners and tax payers to launch peacefully Italian protests against the government tax collectors[94][95], like the case of Tea party protests US [1][35][96][97][98].

From April 2010, the Movimento Libertario collaborates and participates actively in the initiative offered by Tea Party Italia association, for the organisation of Italian Tea Party events.

Tea Party Italia is an independent voluntary movement association led by David Mazzarelli born around the online cultural magazine Ultima [99].

Inside the intellectual and cultural leaders are classical liberals, fiscal conservatives, liberists and libertarians from various think tanks and Italian associations.

Between them in addition to the Movimento Libertario are also Confcontribuenti, Usemlab, Italian Student for Individual Liberty.

On May 20, 2010 the Movimento Libertario has been at Prato for the first Italian Tea Party, an organized meeting to discuss the excessive tax burden in Italy and the classic liberals and liberist solutions to economic crisis.[100][101][102][103][104][105]

The meeting was organized against any State intervention and anti-socialization of our economy, to claim the right to personal autonomy and economic individual responsibility.

In view of the second Italian Tea Party in Rome on June 26, 2010, the movement association of T-Party has provided the distribution of forms necessary to ask your employer to receive the gross salary in the pay packet: an act of resistance against the withholding tax considered a tax scam.

With the public distribution of the modules, the Tea Party of Rome wants to support the struggle of Giorgio Fidenato and the Movimento Libertario for the abolition of withholding tax.[106]

Selling our vote

In view of the ruling on the case of Giorgio Fidenato on withholding tax, the Movimento Libertario have presented in Pordenone (for the 2010 regional elections in Italy on March 28–29), an initiative entitled: "Selling our vote" [107].

The intent was to sign a contract for the candidates in the elections in which they undertook to support, in every way and publicly, the battle of Fidenato against the withholding tax.[108]

The supporters and members of the Movimento Libertario undertook to support in public the political candidates signers, guaranteeing to them the participation of Italian libertarian voters to the regional vote.

This initiative builds on the initiatives of the Americans for Tax Reform by Grover Norquist.

Norquist and his association against taxes are committed to supporting the various candidates in American elections only after obtaining from them a substantial commitment to fight for tax cuts.

In the 2010 regional elections in Italy, the Movimento Libertario have supported the Italian Radicals regionals candidates with their (Bonino-Pannella List), signers of the contract "Selling our vote".[109][110][111][112][113][114][115][116]

Confcontribuenti, as an independent association from the Movimento Libertario, created another very similar contract of commitment to political candidates in Italian regional elections 2010, to support the tax cuts.

Seminary on Vivien Kellems

Between 25 and 27 June 2010, the Movimento Libertario will hold in Bergamasco (AL) (Province of Alessandria) a three days of seminar and studies with theoretical learning and practical training on principles of libertarianism in economy, policy and culture in the contemporary society.[117]

This first seminar will entitled "Vivien Kellems. The rigor of the ideas, the power of action" and it will dedicated in honor of American entrepreneur Vivien Kellems and her battle over withholding tax in 1948 that she has described herself in her book Toil, Taxes and Trouble.[118]

This historical fact became a model for the Italian libertarian farmer Giorgio Fidenato to start his civil disobedience and Tax resistance against the Italian withholding tax.

The Kellems case was presented also by Murray Rothbard in his book For a New Liberty [119]:

The withholding feature of the income tax is a still more clear-cut instance of involuntary servitude. For as the intrepid Connecticut industrialist Vivien Kellems argued years ago, the employer is forced to expend time, labor, and money in the business of deducting and transmitting his employees' taxes to the federal and state governments — yet the employer is not recompensed for this expenditure. What moral principle justifies the government's forcing employers to act as its unpaid tax collectors? The withholding principle, of course, is the linchpin of the whole federal income tax system. Without the steady and relatively painless process of deducting the tax from the worker's paycheck, the government could never hope to raise the high levels of tax from the workers in one lump sum. Few people remember that the withholding system was only instituted during World War II and was supposed to be a wartime expedient. Like so many other features of State despotism, however, the wartime emergency measure soon became a hallowed part of the American system. It is perhaps significant that the federal government, challenged by Vivien Kellems to test the constitutionality of the withholding system, failed to take up the challenge. In February 1948 Miss Kellems, a small manufacturer in Westport, Connecticut, announced that she was defying the withholding law and was refusing to deduct the tax from her employees. She demanded that the federal government indict her, so that the courts would be able to rule on the constitutionality of the withholding system. The government refused to do so, but instead seized the amount due from her bank account. Miss Kellems then sued in federal court for the government to return her funds. When the suit finally came to trial in February 1951, the jury ordered the government to refund her money. But the test of constitutionality never came. - Murray Rothbard in For a New Liberty

The seminar will open to young people that having registered their participation in the site of the ML.[120]

The event will see the presence of many Italian libertarian personalities of journalism, culture and communication, law and Austrian economy in the role of teachers for the participants.[121]

In addition to the organizers Leonardo Facco, Giorgio Fidenato and Carmelo Miragliotta is expected to attend Piero Vernaglione, Francesco Carbone, Chiara Battistoni, Carlo Zucchi, Alessandro Vitale, Massimo Pongolini, Paolo Bernardini and Gaetano Elnekave.



In 2009, Enrico Montesano a famous and popular Italian actor has joined the Movimento Libertario and supports the Giorgio Fidenato's battle in favor of the abolition of withholding tax.[122]

Montesano as libertarian person is against the F.U.S. (Single Fund for the Performing Arts) allocated by the government to finance the Italian theater and film productions.[123]

He supports that: "The work of an artist is judged at the box office and is the public that decides."[124][125]

See also


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External links